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Emergence of micronuclei as a genomic biomarker
The presence of micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. MN are formed as a result of chromosome damage and can be readily identified in exfoliated epithelial cells. MN is chromatin particles derived from acentric chromosomal fragments, which are not incorporated into the daughter nucleus after mitosis. It can be visualized by chromatin stains. A variety of factors influences the formation of MN in cells such as age, sex, genetic constitution, physical and chemical agents, adverse habits such as tobacco, areca nut chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Micronucleation has important implications in the genomic plasticity of tumor cells. The present paper reviews the origin, fate and scoring criteria of MN that serves as a biomarker of exposure to genetic toxins, and for the risk of cancer.
12 July 2021 (online)
© 2015. Indian Society of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.)
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