J Am Acad Audiol 2020; 31(02): 096-104
DOI: 10.3766/jaaa.18063
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Effects of Auditory Training on Electrophysiological Measures in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Kamakshi V. Gopal
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Erin C. Schafer
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Lauren Mathews
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Rajesh Nandy
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Derek Beaudoin
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Laura Schadt
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Ashley Brown
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Bryce Phillips
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
Joshua Caldwell
*   Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
25 May 2020 (online)



Identifying objective changes following an auditory training program is central to the assessment of the program’s efficacy.


This study aimed (1) to objectively determine the efficacy of a 12-week auditory processing training (APT) program in individuals with autism spectrum disorder using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and (2) to identify the top central AEP predictors of the overall score on the Test of Auditory Processing Skills-3 (TAPS-3), the primary behavioral outcome measure of the APT program published in our earlier article.

Research Design:

A one-group pretraining, posttraining design was used.

Study Sample:

The sample included 15 children and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

Participants underwent the APT program consisting of computerized dichotic training, one-on-one therapist-directed auditory training, and the use of remote microphone technology at home and in the classroom.

Data Collection and Analysis:

All participants underwent pre- and posttraining auditory brain stem responses (ABRs), complex auditory brain stem responses (cABRs), and auditory late responses (ALRs). Test results from ABRs and ALRs were grouped based on scores obtained in their dominant and nondominant ears. Paired t-tests were used to assess the efficacy of the training program, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression was used to assess the relationship between ALRs and the TAPS-3 overall summed raw score reported in our earlier article.

Results and Conclusions:

When compared with pretraining results, posttraining results showed shorter ABR latencies and larger amplitudes. The cABRs showed decreased latencies of the frequency following waves, a reduction in pitch error, and enhancement of pitch strength and phase shift. ALR results indicated shorter latencies and larger amplitudes. Our earlier article showed that the TAPS-3 overall score was significantly higher after training. This study showed that the top three ALR predictors of TAPS-3 outcomes were P1 amplitude in the dominant ear, and N1 amplitude in the dominant and nondominant ears.

This study was funded by a research grant from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board.

This article and the article by [Schafer et al (2019)] are part of a complementary pair. Portions of this manuscript have been presented at the American Academy of Audiology conference (2018), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association conference (2017), and the Educational Audiology Conference (2017).


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