Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018; 31(02): 083-094
DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-16-12-0169
Original Research
Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart

Clinical Application of 3D-CISS MRI Sequences for Diagnosis and Surgical Planning of Spinal Arachnoid Diverticula and Adhesions in Dogs

Anna Tauro
Jelena Jovanovik
Colin John Driver
Clare Rusbridge
Further Information

Publication History

26 December 2016

09 October 2017

Publication Date:
13 March 2018 (online)


Objective Abnormalities within the spinal arachnoid space are often treated surgically, but they can be challenging to detect with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. 3D-CISS sequences are considered superior in evaluating structures surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to the high signal-to-noise ratio, high contrast-to-noise ratio and intrinsic insensitivity to motion with minimal signal loss due to CSF pulsations. Our objective was to describe findings and advantages in adding 3D-CISS sequences to routine MRI in patients affected by spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) or arachnoid adhesions.

Material and Methods This article is a retrospective review of medical records of 19 dogs admitted at Fitzpatrick Referrals between 2013 and 2017 that were diagnosed with SAD and confirmed surgically. Inclusion criterions were the presence of clinical signs compatible with compressive myelopathy and an MRI diagnosis, which included the 3D-CISS sequence. Our database was searched for additional 19 dogs diagnosed with other spinal lesions other than SAD that had the same MR sequences. All MR images were anonymized and evaluated by two assessors.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance 3D-CISS sequence appears to improve confidence in diagnosing and surgical planning (Mann–Whitney U-test: p < 0.0005), delineating SAD from other changes associated with abnormal CSF hydrodynamics and providing more anatomical details than conventional MRI sequences. The clinical data in combination with imaging findings would limit over interpretation, when concurrent pathology within the arachnoid space is present.

Author Contributions

Conception of study: A. Tauro, J. Jovanovik, C. Driver, C. Rusbridge; Study design: A. Tauro, C. Driver, C. Rusbridge; Acquisition of data: A. Tauro, J. Jovanovik; Data analysis and interpretation: A. Tauro, C. Driver, C. Rusbridge; Drafting and revising of manuscript: A. Tauro, C. Driver, C. Rusbridge; Approval of submitted manuscript: all authors.

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