Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008; 21(05): 457-461
DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-07-06-0075
Case Report
Schattauer GmbH

Surgical treatment of a traumatic intracranial epidural haematoma in a dog

J. B. Cabassu
1   Michigan State University, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
J.-P. Cabassu
2   Clinique Vétérinaire, Marseille, France
L. Brochier
2   Clinique Vétérinaire, Marseille, France
S. Catheland
2   Clinique Vétérinaire, Marseille, France
S. Ivanoff
2   Clinique Vétérinaire, Marseille, France
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 01 August 2007

Accepted 16 April 2007

Publication Date:
21 December 2017 (online)


A 10-month-old Czech wolf dog was unconscious after being kicked in the head by a horse. The following day, the dog was ataxic and collapsed after several steps. The level of consciousness was decreased. Cranial nerve examination was normal and right postural reactions were decreased. Spinal reflexes were intact in all limbs. The diagnostic work-up included a computed tomography (CT) scan of the head with IV contrast. A lenticular shaped, hyperdense, non-enhancing lesion was observed in the left fronto-parietal region. A diagnosis of intracranial epidural haematoma was made. Two craniotomies were performed on a different day and most of the haematoma was removed. Corticosteroids and antimicrobial therapy were administered. Fifteen days after the surgery, the clinical examinations were unremarkable. Fifteen months later, the owners considered the dog normal. Intracranial subdural or intraparenchymal haematomas have been described in the veterinary literature. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the successful management of an intracranial epidural haematoma in the dog. In humans, these lesions are well described. Common locations are temporal, parietal and frontal regions or a combination of these regions. Patients can be asymptomatic, present with varying clinical signs, or be unconscious. Based on the human literature, following trauma to the head, a CT scan should be performed even if the patient is asymptomatic. Some authors believe that there are not any absolute indications for conservative management versus surgical management.

  • References

  • 1 Hopkins AL. Head trauma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1996; 26: 875-892.
  • 2 Lorenz ND, Kornegay JN. Stupor or coma.. Handbook of Veterinary Neurology. St Louis: Saunders; 2004. .
  • 3 Dewey CW. Emergency management of the head trauma patient. Principles and practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2000; 30: 207-25 vii-viii.
  • 4 Farrow CS. Brain disease and injury (intracranial lesions).. Veterinary diagnostic imaging - The dog and the cat.. St Louis: Mosby; 2003. .
  • 5 Adamo PF, Crawford JT, Stepien RL. Subdural hematoma of the brainstem in a dog: magnetic resonance findings and treatment. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005; 41: 400-405.
  • 6 Hopkins AL, Wheeler SJ. Subdural hematoma in a dog. Vet Surg 1991; 20: 413-417.
  • 7 Nykamp S, Scrivani P, DeLahunta A. et al. Chronic subdural hematomas and hydrocephalus in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001; 42: 511-514.
  • 8 Tamura S, Tamura Y, Tsuka T. et al. Sequential magnetic resonance matoma in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2006; 47: 142-144.
  • 9 Thomas WB, Adams WH, McGavin MD. et al. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of intracranial hemorrhage secondary to cerebral vascular malformation in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997; 38: 371-375.
  • 10 Cerda-Gonzalez S, Olby NJ. Fecal incontinence associated with epidural spinal hematoma and intervertebral disk extrusion in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 230-235.
  • 11 Tartarelli CL, Baroni M, Borghi M. Thoracolumbar disc extrusion associated with extensive epidural haemorrhage: aretrospective study of23 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 2005; 46: 485-490.
  • 12 Doyon D, Cabanis E-A, Frija J. et al. Encéphale. Scanner á rayons X. 2nd ed.. Paris: Masson; 2000: 37-96.
  • 13 Doyon D, Cabanis E-A, Frija J. et al. Le scanner á rayons X. Scanner á rayons X.. 2nd ed. Paris: Masson; 2000: 1-36.
  • 14 Cheung PS, Lam JM, Yeung JH. et al. Outcome of traumatic extradural haematoma in Hong Kong. Injury 2007; 38: 76-80.
  • 15 Bozbuga M, Izgi N, Polat G. et al. Posterior fossa epidural hematomas: observations on a series of 73 cases. Neurosurg Rev 1999; 22: 34-40.
  • 16 Servadei F, Piazza G, Seracchioli A. et al. Extradural haematomas: an analysis of the changing characteristics of patients admitted from 1980 to 1986. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications in 158 cases. Brain Inj 1988; 2: 87-100.
  • 17 Zee CS, Go JL. CT of head trauma. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1998; 8: 525-539.
  • 18 Mohanty A, Kolluri VR, Subbakrishna DK. et al. Prognosis of extradural haematomas in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 1995; 23: 57-63.
  • 19 Han JS, Kaufman B, Alfidi RJ. et al. Head trauma evaluated by magnetic resonance and computed tomography: acomparison. Radiology 1984; 150: 71-77.
  • 20 Loshkajian A. Neurologie. Imagerie medicale. Paris: Estem; 2000: 167-220.
  • 21 Tuncer R, Acikbas C, Ucar T. et al. Conservative management of extradural haematomas: effects of skull fractures on resorption rate. Acta Neurochir 1997; 139: 203-207.
  • 22 Cucciniello B, Martelotta N, Nigro D. et al. Conservative management of extradural hematomas. Acta Neurochir 1993; 120: 47-52.
  • 23 Pang D, Horton JA, Herron JM. et al. Nonsurgical management of extradural hematomas in children. J Neurosurg 1989; 59: 958-971.