Biological effects of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseFinancial support: This study was partially supported by a research grant [ESR-14–10659] from AstraZeneca, which had no role in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the report; and the decision to submit the paper for publication.
30 December 2016
Accepted after major revision: 08 March 2017
07 November 2017 (online)
Patients with SCAD and concomitant COPD are at high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, due to chronic inflammation, responsible of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and heightened platelet reactivity (PR). The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to test if ticagrelor is superior to clopidogrel in improving endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-six patients with SCAD and COPD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to receive clopidogrel (n=23) or ticagrelor (n=23) on top of standard therapy with aspirin. The following parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1 month: i) rate of apoptosis and ii) nitric oxide (NO) levels in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), iii) levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell, iv) 29 cytokines/chemokines, v) on-treatment PR. The primary endpoint of the study was the 1-month rate of HUVECs apoptosis. The rate of apoptosis after 1 month was significantly lower in patients treated with ticagrelor (7.4 ± 1.3% vs 9.3 ± 1.5%, p<0.001), satisfying the pre-specified primary endpoint. In the ticagrelor arm, levels of NO were higher (10.1 ± 2.2 AU vs 8.5 ± 2.6 AU, p=0.03) while those of ROS (4 ± 1.8 AU vs 5.7 ± 2.8 AU, p=0.02) and P2Y12 reactivity units (52 ± 70 PRU vs 155 ± 62 PRU, p<0.001) were lower. There were no differences in cytokines/chemokines levels and aspirin reactivity units between groups. In patients with SCAD and COPD undergoing PCI, ticagrelor, as compared to clopidogrel is superior in improving surrogate markers of endothelial function and on-treatment PR (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02519608).
Supplementary Material to this article is available online at www.thrombosis-online.com.
KeywordsTicagrelor - clopidogrel - endothelial function - stable coronary artery disease - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
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