Thromb Haemost 2012; 108(05): 824-831
DOI: 10.1160/TH12-04-0278
Theme Issue Article
Schattauer GmbH

Exercise training in intermittent claudication: Effects on antioxidant genes, inflammatory mediators and proangiogenic progenitor cells

Witold N. Nowak*
1  Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
2  Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
,
Piotr Mika*
3  Department of Clinical Rehabilitation, University School of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland
,
Roman Nowobilski
4  Institute of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
,
Katarzyna Kusinska
1  Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
,
Karolina Bukowska-Strakova
1  Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
2  Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
,
Rafal Nizankowski
5  2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
,
Alicja Jozkowicz#
1  Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
,
Andrzej Szczeklik†§
5  2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
,
Jozef Dulak§
1  Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
› Author Affiliations
Financial support: This work was supported by grants POIG 01.01.02–00–109/09 and 01.01.02.069/09 from the European Union structural funds.
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 30 April 2012

Accepted after major revision: 28 July 2012

Publication Date:
29 November 2017 (online)

Summary

Exercise training remains a therapy of choice in intermittent claudication (IC). However, too exhaustive exercise may cause ischaemic injury and inflammatory response. We tested the impact of three-month treadmill training and single treadmill exercise on antioxidant gene expressions, cytokine concentrations and number of marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells (PPC) in the blood of IC patients. Blood samples of 12 patients were collected before and after training, before and 1, 3 and 6 hours after the single exercise. PPCs were analysed with flow cytometry, cytokine concentrations were checked with Milliplex MAP, while expression of mRNAs and miRNAs was evaluated with qRT-PCR. Treadmill training improved pain-free walking time (from 144 ± 44 seconds [s] to 311 ± 134 s, p=0.02) and maximum walking time (from 578 ± 293 s to 859 ± 423 s, p=0.01) in IC patients. Before, but not after training, the single treadmill exercise increased the number of circulating CD45dimCD34+CD133-KDR+ PPCs (p=0.048), decreased expression of HMOX1 (p=0.04) in circulating leukocytes, reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.03) and tended to elevate myeloperoxidase (p=0.06) concentrations in plasma. In contrast, total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was decreased by single exercise only after, but not before training (p=0.02). Both before and after training the single exercise decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (p=0.006 and p=0.03) concentration and increased SOD1 (p=0.001 and p=0.01) expression. Patients after training had also less interleukin-6 (p=0.03), but more MCP-1 (p=0.04) in the blood. In conclusion, treadmill training improves walking performance of IC patients, attenuates the single exercise-induced changes in gene expressions or PPC mobilisation, but may also lead to higher production of some proinflammatory cytokines.

§ deceased.


# These authors contributed equally as senior authors.


* These authors contributed equally as first authors.