Semin intervent Radiol 2008; 25(1): 065-070
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1052308

© Thieme Medical Publishers

Carbon Dioxide Angiography

Brian Funaki1
  • 1Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 March 2008 (online)

The algorithm for patients with renal insufficiency who require vascular imaging has recently changed in my hospital. Previously, the majority of these patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or occasionally computed tomographic angiography after prescan hydration and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Although we have used carbon dioxide (CO2) for many years, with the advent of nephrogenic systemic sclerosis and its unclear relationship to MRA contrast agents, we are increasingly using CO2 as a contrast agent for both diagnosis and to guide therapy. CO2 has been used for > 30 years. It is not nephrotoxic or hepatotoxic and is nonallergenic. It is also quite inexpensive compared with other contrast agents.


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Brian FunakiM.D. 

Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, University of Chicago Medical Center

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