Subscribe to RSS
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York
Cytotoxic Activities of Xanthochymol and Isoxanthochymol Substantiated by LC-MS/MS[*]
Received: June 18, 2007
Revised: September 21, 2007
Accepted: September 24, 2007
12 November 2007 (online)
The methanol extract of the fruit rinds of Garcinia indica showed potent cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines, colon (COLO-320-DM), breast (MCF-7) and liver (WRL-68), as determined by the MTT assay. Fractionation of the methanol extract into hexane-, chloroform- and ethyl acetate-soluble fractions and evaluation of cytotoxic activity of each of the fractions revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective as compared to the two other fractions. Two polyisoprenylated benzophenones, xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Both xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol as a single pure entity did not turn out to be as effective as the ethyl acetate extract from which they have been isolated. The concentrations of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in four different extracts - methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate - were determined with the help of LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the LC-MS/MS data, combinations of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in different ratios were tested in the MTT assay and were found to be effective. Moreover, it was established from the LC-MS/MS data that the combination of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in a ratio of 1 : 2 showed maximal cytotoxicity
Garcinia indica - Guttiferae - xanthochymol - isoxanthochymol - cytotoxicity - LC-MS/MS
- 1 Iinuma M, Tosa H, Tanaka T, Kanamaru S, Fujio A, Kobayashi Y. et al . Antibacterial-activity of some Garcinia benzophenone derivatives against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Biol Pharm Bull. 1996; 19 311-4.
- 2 Yamaguci F, Ariga T, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. Antioxidative and anti-glycation activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind. J Agric Food Chem. 2000; 48 80-5.
- 3 Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, Ito T, Ohguchi K, Tanaka T. et al . Cytotoxic benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species display a strong apoptosis-inducing effects against human leukemia cell lines. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003; 26 69-71.
- 4 Balasubramanyam K, Altaf M, Varier R A, Swaminathan V, Ravindran A, Sadhale P P. et al . Polyisoprenylated benzophenones garcinol a natural histone acetyltransferase inhibitor represses chromatin transcription and alters global gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279 33 716-26.
- 5 Roux D, Hadi H A, Thoret S, Guenard D, Thoison O, Pais M. et al . Structure-activity relationship of polyisoprenyl benzophenones from Garcinia pyrifera on the tubulin/microtubule system. J Nat Prod. 2000; 63 1070-6.
- 6 Rama Rao A V, Venkatswamy G, Yemul S S. Xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol two novel polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia xanthochymus . Indian J Chem. 1980; 19B 627-33.
- 7 Absher M. Detection of cell proliferation-cell counting by haematocytometer chamber. Methods Enzymol. 1985; 298 252-76.
- 8 Chattopadhyay S K, Kumar S. Identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in Garcinia species using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B. 2006; 844 67-83.
- 9 Carmichael J, DeGraff W G, Gazdar A F, Minna J D, Mitchell J B. Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: assessment of chemosensitivity testing. Cancer Res. 1987; 47 936-42.
Sunil K. Chattopadhyay
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP)
Lucknow - 226015