Int J Sports Med 2008; 29(6): 487-493
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-989229
Training & Testing

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Kinematic Analysis of Swing in Pro and Amateur Golfers

N. Zheng1 , S. W. Barrentine2 , G. S. Fleisig3 , J. R. Andrews2
  • 1Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Univeristy of Florida, Gainesville, United States
  • 2Research, American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 3Chair of Research, Alabama Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, United States
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision July 6, 2007

Publication Date:
14 November 2007 (online)


As golf grows in popularity, golf related injuries have increased. The purpose of this study was to calculate and compare upper body kinematics of healthy male golfers from different skill levels. Kinematic data were obtained from 18 professional, 18 low handicap, 18 mid handicap and 18 high handicap golfers with an optoelectronic system at 240 frames per second. Ten displacement parameters were calculated at address, peak of back swing and ball contact. Angular velocity parameters and respective temporal data were calculated during the downswing phase. Most parameters were significantly different between the higher skilled golfers (professional, low handicap) and the least skilled golfers (high handicap). At the peak of the swing, professionals produced the largest magnitudes for left shoulder horizontal adduction (125 ± 6°), right shoulder external rotation (66 ± 11°), and trunk rotation (60 ± 7°). During the downswing, the professionals produced the largest angular velocities for the club shaft (2413 ± 442°/s), right elbow extension (854 ± 150°/s), right wrist (1183 ± 299°/s) and left wrist (1085 ± 338°/s). The results of this study show that improper mechanics of golf swing existed in middle and high handicap groups. These improper mechanics may contribute to golf related injuries.


Dr. Ph. D. Naiquan Zheng

Univerisity of Florida
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

3450 Hull Road

32607 Gainesville

United States

Phone: + 35 22 73 74 10

Fax: + 35 22 73 74 07