Horm Metab Res 2007; 39(5): 389-394
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-976545
Original Clinical

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Effects of Solid versus Liquid Meal-replacement Products of Similar Energy Content on Hunger, Satiety, and Appetite-regulating Hormones in Older Adults

S. M. Tieken 1 , H. J. Leidy 2 , A. J. Stull 2 , R. D. Mattes 2 , R. A. Schuster 2 , W. W. Campbell 2
  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • 2Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Further Information

Publication History

received 5. 10. 2006

accepted 19. 12. 2006

Publication Date:
29 May 2007 (online)


Objective: To examine whether solid versus liquid meal-replacement products differentially affect appetite and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults.

Methods: On two occasions, 9 subjects (age: 61±3 years; BMI: 25.6±1.3 kg/m2) consumed 25% of daily energy needs as solid or liquid meal-replacements of similar energy contents. Blood and appetite ratings were collected over 4 hours.

Results: The post-prandial hunger composite (area under the curve) was lower following the solid versus liquid meal-replacement (p<0.005) and remained below baseline over 4 hours (p<0.05). Similar responses were observed with the desire to eat. The insulin and ghrelin composites were lower following the solid trial compared to the liquid [insulin: 5825 (range: 4676-11639) vs. 7170 (4472-14169) uIU/l·240 min, p<0.01; ghrelin: -92798 (range: -269130-47528) vs. -56152 (range: -390855-30840) pg/ml·240 min, p<0.05]. Ghrelin also remained below baseline over 4 hours (p<0.05). No differences in cholecystokinin and leptin were observed between products.

Conclusion: The consumption of comparable meal-replacement products in solid versus liquid versions with similar energy contents led to differential appetitive responses and should not be viewed as dietary equivalents in older adults.


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H. J. Leidy

Purdue University

700 West State Street

West Lafayette

IN 47907

Phone: +1/765/494 83 13

Fax: +1/765/494 06 74

Email: hleidy@purdue.edu