Horm Metab Res 2007; 39(5): 389-394
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-976545
Original Clinical

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Effects of Solid versus Liquid Meal-replacement Products of Similar Energy Content on Hunger, Satiety, and Appetite-regulating Hormones in Older Adults

S. M. Tieken 1 , H. J. Leidy 2 , A. J. Stull 2 , R. D. Mattes 2 , R. A. Schuster 2 , W. W. Campbell 2
  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
  • 2Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Further Information

Publication History

received 5. 10. 2006

accepted 19. 12. 2006

Publication Date:
29 May 2007 (online)


Objective: To examine whether solid versus liquid meal-replacement products differentially affect appetite and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults.

Methods: On two occasions, 9 subjects (age: 61±3 years; BMI: 25.6±1.3 kg/m2) consumed 25% of daily energy needs as solid or liquid meal-replacements of similar energy contents. Blood and appetite ratings were collected over 4 hours.

Results: The post-prandial hunger composite (area under the curve) was lower following the solid versus liquid meal-replacement (p<0.005) and remained below baseline over 4 hours (p<0.05). Similar responses were observed with the desire to eat. The insulin and ghrelin composites were lower following the solid trial compared to the liquid [insulin: 5825 (range: 4676-11639) vs. 7170 (4472-14169) uIU/l·240 min, p<0.01; ghrelin: -92798 (range: -269130-47528) vs. -56152 (range: -390855-30840) pg/ml·240 min, p<0.05]. Ghrelin also remained below baseline over 4 hours (p<0.05). No differences in cholecystokinin and leptin were observed between products.

Conclusion: The consumption of comparable meal-replacement products in solid versus liquid versions with similar energy contents led to differential appetitive responses and should not be viewed as dietary equivalents in older adults.



H. J. Leidy

Purdue University

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West Lafayette

IN 47907

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Fax: +1/765/494 06 74

Email: hleidy@purdue.edu