Planta Med 2007; 73(5): 461-467
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-967167
Original Paper
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Antioxidant, Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activities of Tannin-Rich Fractions, Ellagitannins and Phenolic Acids from Punica granatum L.

Muntha K. Reddy1 , Sashi K. Gupta1 , Melissa R. Jacob2 , Shabana I. Khan2 , Daneel Ferreira1 , 2
  • 1Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University MS, USA
  • 2National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University MS, USA
Further Information

Publication History

Received: February 15, 2007 Revised: February 16, 2007

Accepted: February 22, 2007

Publication Date:
04 April 2007 (online)


The Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) by-product POMx was partitioned between water, EtOAc and n-BuOH, and the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were purified by XAD-16 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to afford ellagic acid (1), gallagic acid (2), punicalins (3), and punicalagins (4). Compounds 1 - 4 and the mixture of tannin fractions (XAD-16 eluates) were evaluated for antioxidant, antiplasmodial, and antimicrobial activities in cell-based assays. The mixture of tannins (TPT), XAD-EtOAc, XAD-H2O, XAD-PJ and XAD-BuOH, exhibited IC50 values against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at 0.8 - 19 μg/mL. Compounds 1 - 4 showed IC50 values of 1.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively, against ROS generation and no toxicity up to 31.25 μg/mL against HL-60 cells. Gallagic acid (2) and punicalagins (4) exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones with IC50 values of 10.9, 10.6, 7.5 and 8.8 μM, respectively. Fractions XAD-EtOAc, XAD-BuOH, XAD-H2O and XAD-PJ compounds 1 - 4 revealed antimicrobial activity when assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus fumigatus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 2 and 4 showed activity against P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, and MRSA. This is the first report on the antioxidant, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of POMx isolates, including structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the free radical inhibition activity of compounds 1 - 4. Our results suggest a beneficial effect from the daily intake of POMx and pomegranate juice (PJ) as dietary supplements to augment the human immune system’s antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial capacities.


Dr. D. Ferreira

Department of Pharmacognosy and National Center for Natural Products Research

Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences

School of Pharmacy

The University of Mississippi


MS 38677


Phone: +1-662-915-7026

Fax: +1-662-915-6975