Int J Sports Med 1991; 12(2): 208-213
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1024669
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

Force-Velocity Relationship of Human Elbow Flexors in Voluntary Isotonic Contraction under Heavy Loads

T. Kojima
  • Department of Sports Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153, Japan
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Publication History

Publication Date:
14 March 2008 (online)


The force-velocity relationships of the human elbow flexors as one muscle in maximal voluntary contraction were determined using isotonic lever systems for seven men (19-38 yrs). The external loads used for the contraction weighed 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 90% of maximum voluntary isometric force (Fo). The force and velocity were determined at an elbow angle of 90°. The effect of the inertia of the forearm on the force was corrected using the angular acceleration of the forearm during an elbow flexion. The effect of muscular fatigue on the velocity during an elbow flexion was minimized by adjusting the initial elbow angle at the onset of the elbow flexion to the size of the load and reducing the time duration of the elbow flexion with a heavy load. Hill equation fitted fairly well to the force-velocity data observed in the experiments up to 90% Fo. The maximum isometric force predicted using Hill equation was larger by 6% (mean) than that observed in the experiments.