Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Clinical, Radiological and Endoscopic Studies
17 March 2008 (online)
Gastrointestinal tract involvement with hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in 8 out of 396 patients (2 %) during the course of the disease. Histological involvement was confirmed in 6 cases. All 8 patients were men. The most common clinical presentation was frank gastrointestinal bleeding, which became evident in all cases. Esophageal varices were not seen in any patient. The sites of involvement were the stomach (3), duodenum (4), and jejunum (1). The median time between the diagnosis of primary tumors and gastrointestinal tract involvement was 4.5 months (range: 0 to 12 months). Hematogenous spread was presumed to have occurred in two patients with diffuse-type hepatocellular carcinoma, one of whom had main portal vein thrombosis. Direct invasion by contiguous neoplasm was the major mode of gastrointestinal tract involvement. This complication is more likely to develop in patients with large, subcapsular. massive type hepatocellular carcinoma treated by transcatheter arterial embolization and/or intra-arterial chemotherapy. The median survival after the diagnosis of gastrointestinal involvement was 1 month (2 weeks-4 months).
Hepatocellular carcinoma - Gastrointestinal tract involvement - Hematogenous spread - Direct invasion