Orthopedic Trauma Directions 2005; 3(4): 11-19
DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-919120
Clinical topic
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

Tibial fractures

The impact of cigarette smoking on outcome 
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
27 December 2005 (online)


These studies suggest that smoking is associated with higher rates of delayed and nonunion, longer time to union, and greater requirement for secondary surgery to stimulate union following tibial fracture. Smokers also tended to have higher rates of complication (eg, flap failure and infection), but none of the reported differences in serious complications achieved statistical significance.

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Strength of evidence | Average methods score (out of 6).