Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie 2005; 37(2): 87-99
DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-836575

© Georg Thieme Verlag

Entstehung und orthodontische Behandlung der Klasse-III-Malokklusion

Development and Orthodontic Treatment of Class III MalocclusionS. Sato1 , S. Akimoto1 , H. Shinji1
  • 1Department of Craniofacial Growth and Development, Kanagawa Dental College, Japan
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
06 July 2005 (online)


Die Autoren befassen sich mit der Entstehung der Klasse III und des offenen Bisses aus der Sicht der Evolution. Dabei wird die vertikale Entwicklung des Gebisses, mit der Tendenz zur Hyperdivergenz in den Vordergrund gestellt und besonders auf den posterioren Abschnitt der Okklusion verwiesen. Letzterer beeinflusst die Lage der Okklusionsebene wie auch deren Neigung. Ist die Okklusionsebene steil (nach posterior superior geneigt), so entsteht die Klasse II. Bei flacher Okklusionsebene entwickelt sich die Klasse III. Je nach Tonus der Muskulatur kann auch ein offener Biss hinzukommen.


The development of a class III open bite is described from an evolutionary point of view. The authors focus on the vertical development of the dentition with its hyperdivergent tendencies. Position and inclination of the occlusal plane are affected primarily by the posterior occlusal vertical dimension. On the basis of a heavily inclined occlusal plane (inclined postero-superiorly) a class II malocclusion will develop, whereas a class III malocclusion will result from a more even occlusal plane. Dependent on growth and strength of the associated muscles an open bite may develop as well.


  • 1 Richardson E R. Atlas of craniofacial growth in Americans of African Descent. Center for Human Growth and Development. Craniofacial Growth Monograph Series 1991
  • 2 Bhatia S N, Leighton B C. A manual of facial growth. A computer analysis of longitudinal cephalometric growth data. Oxford Univ. Press 1993
  • 3 Protacio C, Sato S. The role of posterior discrepancy on the development of skeletal Class III malocclusion - Its clinical importance.  Int J MEAW Tech Res Found. 1995;  2 5-18
  • 4 Hopkin G B, Houston W J, James G A. The cranial base as an aetiological factor in malocclusion.  Angle Orthod. 1968;  38 250-255
  • 5 Slavicek R, Sato S. The dynamic functional anatomy of craniofacial complex and its relation to the articulation of the dentitions. Das Kauorgan. Funktionen und Dysfunktionen. Gamma Dental Edition, Austria 2001; 482-514
  • 6 Sato S. A Treatment approach to malocclusions under the consideration of craniofacial dynamics. Grace Printing Press Inc, Philippines 2001
  • 7 Sato S, Suzuki N, Suzuki Y. Longitudinal study of the cant of occlusal plane and denture frame in cases with congenitally missing third molars. Further evidence for the occlusal plane change related to posterior discrepancy.  J Jpn Orthod Soc. 1988;  47 517-525
  • 8 Sato S. Alteration of occlusal plane due to posterior discrepancy related to development of malocclusion - Introduction to denture frame analysis.  Bull Kanagawa Dent Coll. 1987;  15 115-123
  • 9 Sato S. Case report: Developmental characterization of skeletal Class III malocclusion.  Angle Orthod. 1994;  64 105-112
  • 10 Sato S, Sakai H, Sugishita T, Matsumoto A, Kubota M, Suzuki Y. Developmental alteration of the form of denture frame in skeletal Class III malocclusion and its significance in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment.  Int J MEAW Tech Res Found. 1994;  1 33-46
  • 11 Sato S, Dennis C L, Miyakawa Y, Kim R H. The development of openbite as a result of posterior discrepancy and its treatment approach using multiloop edgewise arch wire.  Int J MEAW Tech Res Found. 1998;  5 5-15
  • 12 Sato S, Takamoto K, Suzuki Y. Posterior discrepancy and development of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Orthodontic Review 1988; 16-29
  • 13 Sato S, Suzuki Y. Relationship between the development of skeletal mesio-occlusion and posterior tooth-to-denture base discrepancy - Its significance in the orthodontic reconstruction of skeletal class III malocclusion.  Journal of Japanese Orthodontic Society. 1988;  47 796-810
  • 14 Sato S, Motoyanagi K, Suzuki T, Imasaka S, Suzuki Y. Longitudinal study of the development of skeletal malocclusions.  J Jpn Orthod Soc. 1988;  47 186-196
  • 15 Kim Y H. Treatment of severe openbite malocclusions without surgical intervention. In: McNamara Jr JA (ed). Growth modification: what works, what doesn't, and why. Craniofacial Growth Series, vol. 35, Ann Arbor: Center for Human Growth and Development. The University of Michigan 1999; 193-212
  • 16 Kim Y H. Treatment of anterior openbite and deep overbite malocclusions with the multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) therapy. In: McNamara Jr JA (ed). The Enigma of the Vertical Dimension. Craniofacial Growth Series, vol. 36, Ann Arbor: Center for Human Growth and Development. The University of Michigan 2000; 175-202
  • 17 Sato S, Akimoto S, Matsumoto A, Shirasu A, Yoshida J, Sato S. MEAW - Manual for the clinical application of MEAW technique. Printing Press Inc, Philippines 2002
  • 18 Lowe A A. Correlations between orofacial muscle activity and craniofacial morphology in a sample of control and anterior openbite subjects.  Am J Orthod. 1980;  78 89-92
  • 19 Proffit W R. Equilibrium theory revisited: factors influencing position of the teeth.  Angle Orthod. 1978;  48 175-186
  • 20 Subtelny J E, Sakuta M. Open-bite: diagnosis and treatment.  Am J Orthod. 1964;  50 337-358
  • 21 Mizrahi E. A review of anterior open-bite.  Brit J Orthod. 1978;  5 21-27
  • 22 McNamara J A. Neuromuscular and skeletal adaptations to altered orofacial function. Vol. 1, Craniofacial Growth Series. Ann Arbor: Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan 1972
  • 23 McNamara J A. An experimental study of increased vertical dimension in the growing face.  Am J Orthod. 1977;  71 382-395
  • 24 McNamara J A, Graber L W. Mandibular growth in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).  Am J Physical Anthrop. 1975;  42 15-24
  • 25 Carlson D S, Schneiderman E D. Cephalometric analysis of adaptations after lengthening of masseter muscle in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).  Arch Oral Biol. 1983;  27 627-637
  • 26 McNamara J A, Bryan F A. Long-term mandibular adaptation to protrusive function: An experimental study in Macaca mulatta.  Am J Orthod. 1987;  92 98-101
  • 27 Petrovic A. Mechanisms and regulation of mandibular condylar growth.  Acta Morphol Nee'l Scand. 1972;  10 5-34

Prof. Dr. S Sato

Department of Craniofacial Growth and Development Dentistry ·Kanagawa Dental College

82 Inaoka cho