Semin intervent Radiol 2002; 19(2): 179-186
DOI: 10.1055/s-2002-32796
Copyright © 2002 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.: +1(212) 584-4662

Virtual Reality Training In Interventional Radiology: The Johns Hopkins and Kent Ridge Digital Laboratory Experience

James Anderson1 , Chee-Kong Chui2 , Yiyu Cai3 , Yaoping Wang2 , Zirui Li2 , Xin Ma2 , Wieslaw Nowinski2 , Meiyappan Solaiyappan1 , Kieran Murphy1 , Philippe Gailloud1 , Anthony Venbrux1
  • 1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 2Kent Ridge Digital Laboratory (KRDL), Singapore
  • 2School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
15 July 2002 (online)


This article describes a personal computer-based system for simulation of image-guided cardiovascular interventional procedures for physician and technician training, education, patient-specific pretreatment planning, and therapeutic device design and evaluation. The system provides users with the ability to manipulate and interface interventional devices such as catheters, guide wires, stents, and coils within two-dimensional (2-D) and volume-rendered 3-D reconstructed vascular images in real time. Finite element modeling is used to predict and characterize the interaction of the instruments with component parts of the vascular system and other body tissues. Image display monitors provide fluoroscopic, road mapping, and volume-rendered 3-D presentations of the vasculature. System software libraries provide the opportunity to choose various commonly used catheter and guide wire shapes and sizes as well as various sizes of stents and occluding coils. For training purposes, the system can be incorporated into a lifelike augmented reality-based environment in which interventional procedures are performed. This system also provides a method to design and evaluate the potential performance and/or clinical application of medical devices for interventional applications.


  • 1 Goodwin W. The world of civil simulators.  Flight Int Mag . 1978;  18 435
  • 2 Rolfe J M, Staples K J. Flight Simulators.  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1986: 232-249
  • 3 Ressler E K, Armstrong J E, Forsythe G B. Military mission rehearsal. In: Tekian A, Mcguire C, McGaghie WC, eds. Innovative Simulations for Assessing Professional Competence Chicago: Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois Medical Center, 1999: 157-174
  • 4 Wachtel J. The future of nuclear power plant simulation in the United States. In: Walton DG, ed. Simulation for Nuclear Reactor Technology Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1985: 339-349
  • 5 Vining D J, Liu K, Choplin R H. Virtual bronchoscopy: relationships of virtual reality endobronchial simulations to actual bronchoscopic findings.  Chest . 1996;  109 549-553
  • 6 Vining D J, Tiegen E L, Stells D. Experience with virtual endoscopy in 20 patients.  Radiology . 1995;  197 514
  • 7 Preminger G M, Babayan R K, Merrill G L. Virtual reality simulations in endoscopic surgery. In: Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 4: Health Care in the Information Age-Future Tools for Transforming Medicine, vol 4 San Diego: Amsterdam ISO Press, 1996: 157-163
  • 8 Hon D. Ixions laparoscopic skills simulator. In: Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 2: Interactive Technology and Healthcare: Visionary Applications for Simulation Visualization and Robots, vol 2 San Diego: Aligned Management Associates, 1994: 81-83
  • 9 Derossis A M, Fried G M, Abrahamowicz M. Development of a model for training and evaluation of laparoscopic skills.  Am J Surg . 1998;  175 482-487
  • 10 Kockro R A, Serra L, Tseng-Tsai Y. Planning and simulation of neurosurgery in a virtual reality environment.  Neurosurgery . 2000;  46 118-137
  • 11 Gaba D M, DeAnda A. A comprehensive anesthesia simulation environment.  Anesthesiology . 1988;  69 387-394
  • 12 Ewy G A, Felner J M, Jull D. Test of a cardiology simulator patient simulator with students in fourth-year electives.  J Med Educ . 1987;  62 738-743
  • 13 Takeashina T, Shimizu M, Katayama H. A new cardiology patient simulator.  Cardiology . 1997;  88 408-413
  • 14 Higgins G A, Meglin D A, Millman A S. Virtual reality surgery: implementation of a coronary angioplasty simulator.  Surg Technol Int . 1995;  4 379-383
  • 15 Anderson J H, Brody W, Kriz C J. DaVinci a vascular catheterization and interventional radiology-based training and patient pretreatment planning simulator.  J Vasc Intervent Radiol . 1996;  7 373
  • 16 Anderson J, Raghavan R. Virtual reality interventional radiology.  Min Invas Ther Allied Technol . 1997;  6 111-116
  • 17 Dawson S, Kaufman J, Meglin D. An interactive virtual reality trainer-simulator for interventional radiology.  J Vasc Intervent Radiol . 1996;  7 374
  • 18 Ursino M, Tasto J L, Nguyen B H. Cathsim: an intravascular catheterization simulator on a PC.  Stud Health Technol Informatics . 1999;  62 360-366
  • 19 Hahn J K, Kaugman R, Winick A B. Training environment for inferior vena cava filter placement.  Stud Health Technol Informatics . 1998;  50 291-297
  • 20 Wang Y P, Chui C K, Cai Y Y, Lim H L, Ooi Y T, Mak K H. (1998), I Card: an interventional cardiology simulator for percutaneous coronary revascularization. Presented at Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CAR'98), Tokyo, June 24-27 1998
  • 21 Serra L, Nowinski W, Poston T. The brain bench: virtual tools for stereotactic frame neurosurgery.  Med Image Anal . 1996;  1 317-329
  • 22 Wang Y, Chui C, Lim H. Real-time interactive surgical simulators for catheterization procedures.  J Comput Aided Surg . 1999;  3 211-227
  • 23 Higgins G, Athey B, Bassingthwaighte J. Final report of the meeting ``Modeling and Simulation in Medicine: Towards an Integrated Framework''.  Comput Aided Surg . 2001;  6 32-39