CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Radiol Imaging 2024; 34(03): 435-440
DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-1778725
Original Article

Determining the Normal Glenoid Version in the Indian Population

1   Department of Radiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
1   Department of Radiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
1   Department of Radiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2   Intern, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Background Glenoid version refers to the angle subtended by the glenoid with the scapula. On average, it is 0 ± 10 degrees with a slight propensity toward retroversion. Numerous factors such the dominance(handedness), gender, ethnicity, and pathology are known to affect version. Version has important consequences on the biomechanics of the shoulder joint and is altered in those with arthritis and shoulder joint instability.

Aim Our study aimed to determine the normal range of glenoid version in the population. Further, we aim to assess the relationship between gender and version.

Settings and Design We conducted a retrospective observational study in a tertiary referral hospital with a target sample size of 200 shoulders.

Methods and Materials The computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed to determine the scapular shape and the glenoid version angle.

Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done using SPSS v.22 software with p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.

Results The mean age of the individuals in our study was 44 years. In our study, irrespective of gender, most individuals had some degree of anteversion and males had lower degree of anteversion. Previous studies have shown that most normal individuals usually have retroverted shoulder joints. The mean glenoid version was significantly lower in the right than in the left shoulder and males had significantly lower mean glenoid version than females in both shoulders. Most individuals in our study had a flat scapular spine.

Conclusion This study shows that the Indian population may have a slight propensity toward anteversion and this has an important bearing on shoulder arthroplasty. Further, this study shows that significantly lower degrees of version are found on the right side and that the degree of version is significantly lower in males. Understanding the role of glenoid version in shoulder biomechanics will go a long way in the early identification of pathology, the preoperative planning of shoulder arthroplasty, and the operative restoration of a functional shoulder joint.

Data Availability Statement

All data will be made available on request. Kindly email the corresponding author for the same.

Publication History

Article published online:
31 January 2024

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