Int J Sports Med 2018; 39(05): 390-396
DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-101459
Genetics & Molecular Biology
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Role of Genetic Background in Cardiovascular Risk Markers Changes in Water Polo Players

Debora Di Mauro
1  Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Dental Sciences and Morpho-functional Imaging, Polyclinic Hospital University, Messina, Italy
,
Monica Currò
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Fabio Trimarchi
1  Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Dental Sciences and Morpho-functional Imaging, Polyclinic Hospital University, Messina, Italy
,
Mercurio Vecchio
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Giuseppina Rizzo
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Davide Barreca
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Giuseppa Visalli
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Riccardo Ientile
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
,
Daniela Caccamo
2  Dept. of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History



accepted 12 January 2018

Publication Date:
21 March 2018 (online)

Abstract

Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress increase, that are established cardiovascular risk factors. Given that intense physical activity may increase the susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, here we investigated the effects of MTHFR C677T and A1298C as well as PON1 Q192R gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk markers in twenty-eight male water polo elite players. The mean plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were above reference limits in resting conditions, and increased after competition. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between Hcy and AOPP concentrations, and also between their variations (ratio post-exercise/pre-exercise values) and the variations of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, known as muscle damage markers. The highest Hcy and AOPP values were found in subjects having either MTHFR CT/AC or TT/AA, and PON1 QR192 genotype, respectively. After exercise, Hcy concentrations significantly increased in CT/AC or TT/AA subjects than in athletes having other MTHFR genotypes. A training-induced increase in plasma levels of LDH and CK activities, as well as myoglobin concentrations, was also observed, even if significant differences were found only for CK activity in athletes with MTHFR CT/AC or TT/AA athletes.