Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2024; 37(03): 145-150
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1778684
Original Research

Ultrashort Echo Time Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cruciate Ligaments in Normal Beagles

Dennis E. Socha
1   VCA Colonial Animal Hospital, Ithaca, New York, United States
2   Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, United States
Mitsunori Kayano
3   Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
Matthew F. Koff
2   Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, United States
Kei Hayashi
4   Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, United States
› Author Affiliations


Objective The aim of this study was to provide normative ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) data of the patellar ligament (PL), cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) and caudal cruciate ligament (CdCL) in non-lame Beagles.

Study Design Eight stifles from four subjects obtained immediately postmortem were imaged using UTE MRI in the true sagittal plane. Regions of interest were drawn manually and the total (T2*), short T2* (T2*S) and long T2* (T2*L) values of the signal decay were calculated to evaluate the bound and free water components of the tendon. The T2*S, T2*L and T2* values were compared between the PL, CrCL and CdCL

Results The mean and standard deviation of T2*S, T2*L and T2* were as follows: 0.54 ± 0.13, 4.65 ± 1.08 and 8.35 ± 0.82 ms for the PL; 0.46 ± 0.14, 5.99 ± 0.52 and 8.88 ± 0.4 ms for the CrCL and 0.41 ± 0.13, 7.06 ± 0.57 and 9.26 ± 0.18 ms for the CdCL. Significant differences were found between the T2*L component of the PL and each CrCL/CdCL and a smaller difference was noted between the T2*L of the CrCL and CdCL (p = 0.05). No difference of the T2*S value was found between any of the ligaments.

Conclusion Establishing normative UTE data of the canine stifle is valuable for comparison in future studies in which normal and damaged ligaments may be evaluated, particularly in those affected limbs in which no instability is identified on physical examination in which normal and damaged ligaments may be evaluated.


Hospital for Special Surgery receives institutional research support from GE Healthcare.

Authors' Contribution

All authors contributed to organization and composition of this manuscript. S.P. and K.H. contributed to the conception of this study and design. S.P., M.K. and K.H. took part in the acquisition of data. All authors reviewed and approved of this study's content.

Publication History

Received: 28 July 2023

Accepted: 20 December 2023

Article published online:
30 January 2024

© 2024. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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