CC BY 4.0 · Surg J (N Y) 2024; 10(01): e1-e10
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1778652
Original Article

Early Reconstruction with Locoregional-Free Flaps in Post-COVID-19 Rhino-orbital-cerebral Mucormycosis Craniofacial Deformities: A Single-Center Clinical Experience from India

1   Department of Burns & Plastic Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
Ansarul Haq
1   Department of Burns & Plastic Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
Sarsij Sharma
1   Department of Burns & Plastic Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
Anupama Kumari
1   Department of Burns & Plastic Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
› Author Affiliations


Aim of the Study Mucormycosis is a rare invasive and fatal fungal infection and its resurgence in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been a matter of grave concern. It is essentially a medical disease, but surgical debridement of necrotic tissues is of paramount importance leading to severe craniofacial deformities. In this case series, we present our experience with the feasibility of early reconstruction after surgical debridement.

Case Series As a Dedicated COVID Center (DCH), the institute received the largest population of COVID-19 mucormycosis patients from the entire eastern region of the country between May 2021 and August 2021. More than 5,000 COVID-19 were admitted out of which 218 patients were diagnosed with mucormycosis. Nine patients, seven males and two females, with a mean age of 39 years with craniofacial mucormycosis underwent debridement and early reconstructions (2–4 weeks from first debridement and start of antifungal therapy) with free and pedicled flaps. All flaps survived and showed no evidence of recurrence. The average time of the early reconstruction after surgical debridement was 1.7 weeks once the course of systemic amphotericin B was received.

Conclusion After aggressive surgical resection and a short course of antifungal therapy, early reconstruction can be done safely based on clinical criteria, as long as there is no evidence of hyphae invasion on wound edges in the intraoperative pathology examination.

Publication History

Received: 16 August 2023

Accepted: 13 December 2023

Article published online:
15 January 2024

© 2024. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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