CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Sleep Sci 2024; 17(01): e16-e25
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1778014
Original Article

Sleep Quality in CrossFit: A Cross-Sectional Study

Gabriela Duarte Simoes
1   Department of Nutrition, Faculdade de Minas (FAMINAS-BH), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Fernanda de Araujo Martins
1   Department of Nutrition, Faculdade de Minas (FAMINAS-BH), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Valden Luis Matos Capistrano Jr
2   Department of Nutrition and Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
Luiz Lannes Loureiro
3   Department of Nutrition, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
1   Department of Nutrition, Faculdade de Minas (FAMINAS-BH), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Financial Support This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Objective Based on the relationship between sleep and sports performance, the present study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness among adult CrossFit (CrossFit, LLC, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) practitioners and to verify possible associations with intestinal health.

Methods This cross-sectional study involved males and females aged ≥ 18 years who had been regularly practicing CrossFit for at least 3 months. This survey used an online questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic data, disease history, dietary characteristics, and questions regarding CrossFit. To assess intestinal health, the ROME IV Consensus Criteria and Bristol Scale were used. The Pittsburgh International Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were used to assess sleep quality.

Results A total of 1,090 people (73.3% females) with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years were included. Considering the diagnosis of constipation, 36.9% of the patients were classified as constipated, especially females when compared with males (p < 0.001). On the sleepiness scale, 22.4% of the volunteers showed excessive daytime sleepiness, which was also observed more frequently among females (p = 0.013). In the PSQI-BR, 47.4% of participants were classified as having poor sleep quality (poor sleepers). The overall PSQI-BR score was 5.81 ± 2.85, with no difference between males and females (p = 0.360). There was a positive correlation between the PSQI-BR global score and a diagnosis of constipation and excessive daytime sleepiness. There was a negative correlation between the stool type on the Bristol scale and the PSQI-BR global score.

Conclusion The present study demonstrated that sleep quality was poor among CrossFit users, especially females, which can compromise their training performance.

Authors' Contributions

All authors contributed equally to the manuscript and read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Publication History

Received: 30 December 2022

Accepted: 08 May 2023

Article published online:
15 February 2024

© 2024. Brazilian Sleep Association. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda.
Rua do Matoso 170, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 20270-135, Brazil