CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Radiol Imaging 2024; 34(02): 291-308
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1777320
Review Article

Hand Radiographs in Skeletal Dysplasia: A Pictorial Review

Dheeksha D. S.
1   Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
1   Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
1   Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Neerja Gupta
2   Genetics Subdivision, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Madhulika Kabra
2   Genetics Subdivision, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Manisha Jana
1   Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Skeletal dysplasias or osteochondrodysplasias comprise a large heterogeneous group of genetic disorders and possess significant overlap on imaging, which adds to the dilemma of the reporting radiologist. These entities are routinely evaluated with a detailed skeletal survey and hand radiographs form a crucial part of a complete survey. Certain conditions have characteristic imaging findings that enable a diagnosis be made on hand radiograph alone. Additionally, hand radiographs may also demonstrate findings that may be suggestive of a particular diagnosis/differential diagnoses and would warrant further assessment for proving the same. We aim to demonstrate the use of hand radiographs in diagnosis of various such entities through this review. Although they cannot replace a complete skeletal survey in the diagnosis, hand radiographs performed for other indications might alert a radiologist to the diagnosis of an unsuspected skeletal dysplasia.

Publication History

Article published online:
15 December 2023

© 2023. Indian Radiological Association. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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