Digestive Disease Interventions
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1772852
Review Article

Regional Differences in Education: Can We Bridge that Gap with Simulation-Based Training?

Andrew Kesselman
1   Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California
Vinicius Adami Vayego Fornazari
2   Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3   Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York
› Author Affiliations


Interventional radiology (IR) training is not uniform throughout the world with clear limitations to education, training, and procedural exposure based on regions within different countries and the world. Varying technical exposure can lead to limitations in technical and therapeutic opportunities for patients. Since hands-on exposure to specific procedural skills may not occur in some locations, high fidelity endovascular simulation training can provide an opportunity for technical skills to be learned with an effort to increase patient exposure to care as well as improve technical procedural skill learning.

Summary Statement

Simulation-based training has become a novel technique to educate IR trainees and can potentially play a major role in both supplementation and continued education in IR specialty training. While studies have established validity of currently available simulators in medical education, more research is still needed to confirm the clinical utility in IR and application across all levels of interventional expertise. Simulator-based training offers a way to bridge the gaps in the current apprenticeship model of medical education and, coupled with a comprehensive curriculum, can become a crucial part of education in IR.

Publication History

Received: 28 April 2023

Accepted: 02 August 2023

Article published online:
28 August 2023

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