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The Correlation between Oral Lichen Planus and Thyroid Pathologies: A Retrospective Study in a Sample of Italian PopulationFunding None.
Objectives The association between oral lichen planus and thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, has been discussed in current literature with conflicting outcomes.
Materials and Methods The study retrospectively evaluated the thyroid status in patients diagnosed with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions. A case–control approach was used to prove that thyroid disorders were statistically significant risk factors for oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions.
Statistical Analysis To evaluate these associations, odds ratios (ORs) were used. ORs precision and statistical significance were estimated using a 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value, respectively.
Results A total of 307 patients were involved in the study: 158 females and 149 males. OR, 95% CIs, and p-values were analyzed. Patients with thyroid diseases showed an increased risk of developing oral lichen planus (OR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.85–9.96, p-value: 0.0007) and oral lichenoid lesions (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.24–6.13, p-value: 0.0129). This association was maintained in patients with oral lichen planus, while also considering hypothyroidism (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.46–9.58, p-value: 0.0059) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (OR: 4.57, 95% CI: 1.58–13.23, p-value: 0.005) alone. The correlation of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking status with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions was also evaluated but no statistical significance was found.
Conclusion Even if further investigations are needed, the association between oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions with thyroid pathologies should be taken into consideration by endocrinologists due to the potential malignancy of these disorders.
Ethics Approval Statement
The study protocol of the current study was reviewed and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro.
Patient Consent Statement
The treatment of patients was in line with the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 and each patient signed informed consent.
Article published online:
20 September 2023
© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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