Homeopathy 2024; 113(02): 098-111
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1771024
Original Research Article

Homeopathic Formulations of Syzygium jambolanum Alleviate Glycation-Mediated Structural and Functional Modifications of Albumin: Evaluation through Multi-Spectroscopic and Microscopic Approaches

Nilima S. Bangar
1   Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Lavale, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Selvan Ravindran
1   Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Lavale, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Shamim A. Shaikh
2   Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Katraj, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Nilesh Shah
3   Department of Surgery and Homeopathic Therapeutics, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Homoeopathic Medical College, Katraj, Pune, Maharashtra, India
1   Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Lavale, Pune, Maharashtra, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH), Government of India (Grant no: Z. 28015/103/2012-HPC [EMR]-AYUSH).


Background The growing interest in identifying the mode of action of traditional medicines has strengthened its research. Syzygium jambolanum (Syzyg) is commonly prescribed in homeopathy and is a rich source of phytochemicals.

Objective The present study aims to shed light on the anti-glycation molecular mechanism of Syzyg mother tincture (MT), 30c, and 200c on glycated human serum albumin (HSA) by multi-spectroscopic and microscopic approaches.

Methods The phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of the Syzyg formulations were estimated by the high-performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopic technique, respectively. Glycation was initiated by incubating HSA with methylglyoxal, three Syzyg formulations, and the known inhibitor aminoguanidine in separate tubes at 37°C for 48 hours. The formation of glycation adducts was assessed by spectrofluorometer and affinity chromatography. The structural modifications were analyzed through circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, turbidity, 8-anilinonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Further, the formation of the aggregates was examined by thioflavin T, native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the functional modifications of glycated HSA were determined by esterase-like activity and antioxidant capacity. The binding analysis of Syzyg formulations with glycated HSA was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

ResultsSyzyg formulations MT, 30c, and 200c contained gallic acid and ellagic acid as major phytochemicals, with concentrations of 16.02, 0.86, and 0.52 µg/mL, and 227.35, 1.35, and 0.84 µg/mL, respectively. Additionally, all three formulations had remarkable radical scavenging ability and could significantly inhibit glycation compared with aminoguanidine. Further, Syzyg formulations inhibited albumin's structural and functional modifications. SPR data showed that Syzyg formulations bind to glycated HSA with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.10 nM.

ConclusionSyzyg formulations inhibited the glycation process while maintaining the structural and functional integrity of HSA.

Authors' Contributions

N.S.B.: Investigation, formal analysis, writing original draft. S.R.: Data analysis. S.A.S.: Supervision, project administration. N.S.: Project administration. R.S.T.: Supervision, project administration, validation, review and editing, funding acquisition.

Publication History

Received: 24 January 2023

Accepted: 11 May 2023

Article published online:
19 October 2023

© 2023. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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