The Journal of Hip Surgery 2023; 07(03): 110-116
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1769084
Original Article

Smoking Status Trends between Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients and the General Population from 2012 to 2021

1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
Thomas Bieganowski
1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
Vivek Singh
1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
Utkarsh Anil
1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
Ran Schwarzkopf
1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
Claudette M. Lajam
1   Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York
› Author Affiliations


Smoking is associated with an increased risk of complications, higher opioid use, and mortality following primary elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). Interventions for smoking cessation have been enhanced since value-based care was initiated in 2013. It remains unclear whether surgical optimization has influenced the proportion of smokers undergoing THA over time. Our study examines trends in the yearly proportions of smokers for primary elective THA versus patients having annual physical examinations (APEs). We retrospectively reviewed all patients of 18 years of age or older who underwent primary elective THA and those who had an APE at our institution between January 2012 and December 2021. The electronic medical record was queried for baseline demographics and documented smoking status. Linear regression analysis was used to determine trend significance. In total, 12,524 primary THA patients were matched in a 1:5 ratio to 62,630 APE patients using nearest-neighbor matching. Our analysis demonstrated significantly higher proportions of documented current and former smokers within the THA group at each time point compared with the APE group. The rate of current smokers undergoing THA demonstrated a downward trend that was not significant. There was a significant upward trend in documented current smokers presenting for an APE. Although there has been a decrease in active smokers undergoing THA at our institution over the past decade, this trend is not significant. Therefore, it remains unclear whether smoking cessation interventions have influenced patients undergoing primary THA. Continued vigilance in smoking cessation strategies is warranted, and improved documentation of smoking status may enhance our current understanding of whether optimization efforts are successful.

Level III Evidence Retrospective cohort study.

Ethical Approval

The present study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB).

Informed Consent

Consent to publish was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Availability of Data and Materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors' Contribution

All authors contributed to every aspect of the manuscript preparation process. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Publication History

Received: 12 October 2022

Accepted: 11 April 2023

Article published online:
27 June 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
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