CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2023; 15(04): 545-551
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1768951
Original Article

Martin's Formula As the Most Suitable Method for Estimation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Indian Population

Fatima Farheen
1   Department of Chemical Pathology, USM KLE International Medical Programme, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
Sudha Ambiger
2   Department of Biochemistry, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (KAHER), J.N. Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka
Kamarudin Jaalam
3   Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medical Science, PPSP USM Kubang Kerian, Malaysia, and Deputy Dean, USM KLE International Medical Programme, Belgaum, India
Shivalingappa Javali
4   Department of Community Medicine, USM KLE International Medical Programme, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations


Background Because of cost effectiveness, most of the laboratories in India estimate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with the Friedewald's formula. There were many shortcomings of the Friedewald's formula. Recently, Martin and colleagues have derived a new formula for calculating LDL-C. The present study was undertaken to calculate LDL-C using various formulae (Friedewald's formula, Anandaraja's formula, and Martin's formula) and to compare directly measured LDL-C (D-LDL-C) with calculated LDL-C at various ranges of triglyceride (TG) concentration.

Materials and Methods The present study compared LDL-C measured by Martin's formula, Friedewald's formula, and Anandaraja's formula with D-LDL-C in 280 outpatient fasting samples between the age groups of 18 and 50 years. Depending on the TG values, study samples were divided into four groups. Group 1: less than 200 mg/dL; Group 2: 200 to 300 mg/dL; Group 3: 300 to 400 mg/dL; and Group 4: more than 400 mg/dL.

Results Martin's formula shows highest correlation with r-value of 0.9979 compared with Friedewald's (0.9857) and Anandaraja's (0.9683) r-values. The mean difference was least for Martin's formula (0.31 ± 3.53) compared with other formulae. Among all the groups, percentage of error was least for Martin's formula (0.23%). Martin's LDL-C shows highest concordance (90.90%) compared with Friedewald's (79.60%) and Anandaraja's formulae (82.90%).

Conclusion Among all the groups, Martin's formula shows highest correlation, least percentage of error, highest concordance, and least mean differences. At all TG levels, Martin's formula is the best formula compared with the Friedewald's formula and Anandaraja's formula.



Presentation at a Meeting


Authors' Contributions

S.A. developed the concept, designed the study, and prepared the manuscript. F.F. collected the samples, analyzed the samples, and helped in manuscript editing. K.J. prepared and edited the manuscript. S.J. helped in statistical analysis of data and manuscript editing.

Publication History

Received: 30 July 2022

Accepted: 31 March 2023

Article published online:
13 July 2023

© 2023. The Indian Association of Laboratory Physicians. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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