CC BY 4.0 · European Journal of General Dentistry 2023; 12(02): 109-114
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1768651
Original Article

Salivary Biomarker IL-8 Levels in Smokers and NonSmokers: A Comparative Study

Haafsa Arshad Sahibzada
1   Oral Medicine, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2   Oral Medicine, Margalla Institute of Health Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Khalid Mahmood Siddiqi
3   Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Medicine, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan
4   Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5   Center of Excellence for Regenerative Dentistry, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Hina Mahmood
6   Department of Periodontology, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Sana Riaz
3   Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Medicine, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan
› Author Affiliations


Objective It is estimated that the mortality rate from tobacco-related diseases will reach 10 million worldwide by 2030. It is validated that every three out of four oral cancers are caused by the use of tobacco in various forms especially smoking. Early detection is the only way to reduce this burden. Molecular-level analysis has currently become a valuable tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Around 1000 different salivary protein biomarkers are being investigated in saliva for this purpose. Some of these markers are being investigated to evaluate the proportionality of cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of salivary biomarker interleukin-8 (IL-8) among smokers and nonsmokers as a control group.

Materials and Methods This is a comparative cross-sectional study conducted in Islamabad Dental Hospital, Bhara Kahu. A total of 60 patients were recruited and divided into two equal groups of smokers and nonsmokers. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected and analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

Statistical Analysis The results were then analyzed by SPSS v25 using an independent sample t-test to evaluate the statistical difference and significance.

Results A p-value (<0.001) was found to be significant for the IL-8 levels in smokers when compared with nonsmokers. The mean value for smokers was found to be 122.69 pg/mL and the mean for nonsmokers was evaluated to be 20.68 pg/mL.

Conclusion As the levels of IL-8 were high, it was concluded to be an effective biomarker for the evaluation of smoking-based initial inflammatory changes detectable from saliva.

Publication History

Article published online:
01 May 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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