CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology 2023; 06(02): 138-147
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1768486
Original Article

MRI Staging of Anorectal Malignancy—A Reporting Dilemma: Is It Adenocarcinoma or Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

1   Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Kirthi Sathyakumar
1   Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Antony Augustine
1   Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Reetu John
1   Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Betty Simon
1   Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Rijo Issac
2   Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Dipti Masih
2   Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Jeba Karunya
3   Department of Radiation Oncology I, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Thomas S. Ram
3   Department of Radiation Oncology I, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Ashish Singh
4   Department of Medical Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Mark Ranjan Jesudason
5   Department of Colorectal Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
,
Rohin Mittal
5   Department of Colorectal Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
› Institutsangaben
Funding This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Abstract

Aim Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of anorectal malignancy is often reported assuming low rectal adenocarcinoma (LRC). The biopsy may, however, reveal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thus, the aim was to compare the imaging findings of SCC and LRC.

Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent staging MRI for anorectal malignancy (<5 cm from the anal verge) for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma between 2016 and 2021. Two radiologists blinded to biopsy reviewed MRI. Imaging findings and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between SCC and LRC.

Results We studied 137 patients (n = 60 SCC, n = 77 LRC) with a mean age of 50.4 (standard deviation: 12.4) years and tumor length of 5.6 ± 1.9 cm. SCC patients were older, and their distal tumor margin was closer to the anal verge (5.3 vs. 22 mm for LRC; p <0.001). T2 intermediate signal and diffusion restriction was seen in 97 and 98.2% of SCC and 75.3 and 77% of LRC, respectively. SCC had lower ADC values (0.910 × 10−3 mm2/s) than LRC (1.126 × 10−3 mm2/s; p < 0.001). But there was no difference in the ADC values when T2 hyperintense tumors were excluded (p = 0.132). Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) was more frequent in LRC (35.1 vs. 16.7%; p = 0.013). A combination of distance from the anal verge of less than 11 mm, absent EMVI, and the presence of internal iliac and inguinal nodes had an area under the curve (95% confidence interval) of 0.810 (0.737–0.884).

Conclusion ADC values are unhelpful in differentiating SCC and LRC. Tumors closer to anal verge, absence of EMVI, and the presence of inguinal and internal-iliac nodes may point towards SCC.

Abbreviation

LRC – low rectal cancer


SCC – squamous cell carcinoma


CRT – chemoradiotherapy


APE - abdominoperineal excision


ELAPE - extra-levator APE


TME – total mesorectal excision


p-CRM - pathological CRM


MMC - mitomycin C (MMC) and


5-FU - 5-fluorouracil


Ethical Approval and Consent to Participate

Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. IRB Min No. 14621, 27.04.2022. Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.


Availability of Data and Materials

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to institutional data protection policies but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Authors' Contributions

Anuradha Chandramohan conceptualized and designed the study. Anuradha Chandramohan, Kirthi Sathyakumar, and Antony Augustine contributed to literature research and manuscript preparation. Anuradha Chandramohan, Kirthi Sathyakumar, Antony Augustine, Mark Rajan Jesudason, Rohin Mittal, Jeba Karunya, Thomas S. Ram, and Ashish Singh helped in clinical studies. Reka K was involved experimental studies/data analysis and statistical analysis. Anuradha Chandramohan, Kirthi Sathyakumar, Antony Augustine, Reetu John, Betty Simon, Rijo Issac, Dipti Masih, Jeba Karunya, Thomas S Ram, Ashish Singh, Mark R Jesudason, and Rohin Mittal edited the manuscript. Anuradha Chandramohan and Rohin Mittal are guarantor of integrity of the entire study.




Publikationsverlauf

Artikel online veröffentlicht:
24. April 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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