CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2023; 15(04): 503-509
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1768169
Original Article

Spectrum and Trends of Intestinal Parasitic Infections at a Tertiary Care Hospital during Pandemic Times: A Laboratory-Based Retrospective Study

Suneeta Meena
1   Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
2   Department of Preventive Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Jhajjar, Haryana, India
Dinesh Kumar
1   Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
Purva Mathur
3   Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
› Institutsangaben
Funding None.


Introduction Intestinal parasitic infections continue to loom in developing countries with low sanitation and socioeconomic conditions. Pandemic times are especially important to study the prevalence of these pathogens since the focus of all healthcare services was coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and time-trend of intestinal parasitic infections in the capital region of India during the pandemic times.

Methods In this cross-sectional study, a retrospective review based on data from the past 2 years in the post-COVID-19 pandemic was used. Descriptive and time-trend analyses were applied to the data. Time series analysis was analyzed using the best fit autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to look for seasonality in trends and forecasting.

Results A total of 7267 patients' stool samples over a 2-year pandemic period were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were detected in 11.18% (813/7276) patients. Giardia lamblia (2.28%) and Blastocystis hominis (3.78%) were the predominant ones. Time-trend analysis from 2020 to 2021 using ARIMA model predicted an increasing trend with waning of pandemic. The most prevalent infection was found in the monsoon and autumn months.

Conclusion Rates of infection with Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis have increased in comparison to other protozoan infections like Entamoeba histolytica when compared with prepandemic hospital-based studies. With fading of the pandemic, further increasing trends are predicted.


Eingereicht: 14. Oktober 2022

Angenommen: 26. Februar 2023

Artikel online veröffentlicht:
25. April 2023

© 2023. The Indian Association of Laboratory Physicians. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Tigabu A, Taye S, Aynalem M, Adane K. Prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitic infections among patients attending Shahura Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes 2019; 12 (01) 333
  • 2 Carrero JC, Reyes-López M, Serrano-Luna J. et al. Intestinal amoebiasis: 160 years of its first detection and still remains as a health problem in developing countries. Int J Med Microbiol 2020; 310 (01) 151358
  • 3 Praharaj I, Sarkar R, Rao Ajjampur SS, Roy S, Kang G. Temporal trends of intestinal parasites in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in South India: a seven-year retrospective analysis. Indian J Med Res 2017; 146 (01) 111-120
  • 4 Choubisa SL, Jaroli VJ, Choubisa P, Mogra N. Intestinal parasitic infection in Bhil tribe of Rajasthan, India. J Parasit Dis 2012; 36 (02) 143-148
  • 5 National Deworming Day | National Health Portal Of India [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 15]. Accessed March 15, 2023 at:
  • 6 Evidence-based Impact of National Deworming Day in India [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul 16]. Accessed March 15, 2023 at:
  • 7 Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in India - PubMed [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 15]. Accessed March 15, 2023 at:
  • 8 Garcia LS, Arrowood M, Kokoskin E. et al. Practical guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories: laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. Clin Microbiol Rev 2017; 31 (01) e00025-e17
  • 9 Iyer RN, Rao J, Venkatalakshmi A, Nahdi FB. Clinical and microbiology profile and outcome of diarrhea by coccidian parasites in immunocompetent children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015; 34 (09) 937-939
  • 10 Uppal B, Perween N, Aggarwal P, Kumar SK. A comparative study of bacterial and parasitic intestinal infections in India. J Clin Diagn Res 2015; 9 (03) DC01-DC04
  • 11 Mukherjee AK, Chowdhury P, Bhattacharya MK, Ghosh M, Rajendran K, Ganguly S. Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata. BMC Res Notes 2009; 2: 110
  • 12 Kumar P, Vats O, Kumar D, Singh S. Coccidian intestinal parasites among immunocompetent children presenting with diarrhea: Are we missing them?. Trop Parasitol 2017; 7 (01) 37-40
  • 13 Kłudkowska M, Pielok Ł, Frąckowiak K, Paul M. Intestinal coccidian parasites as an underestimated cause of travellers' diarrhoea in Polish immunocompetent patients. Acta Parasitol 2017; 62 (03) 630-638
  • 14 Güler E, Süer K. Epidemiology of intestinal parasites in a university hospital in Northern Cyprus: a 4-year retrospective experience. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2021; 45 (02) 128-132
  • 15 Klein SL. Hormonal and immunological mechanisms mediating sex differences in parasite infection. Parasite Immunol 2004; 26 (6-7): 247-264
  • 16 Gay L, Melenotte C, Lakbar I. et al. Sexual dimorphism and gender in infectious diseases. Front Immunol 2021; 12: 698121 cited 2022Sep14 [Internet]
  • 17 Zorbozan O. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on access to healthcare: the experience of the Diagnostic Parasitology Laboratory of Ege University. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2022; 46 (02) 124-128