Semin Thromb Hemost 2023; 49(07): 764-773
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1764467
Review Article

The Post–Venous Thromboembolism Functional Status Scale: From Call to Action to Application in Research, Extension to COVID-19 Patients, and Its Use in Clinical Practice

1   Department of Medicine - Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
1   Department of Medicine - Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
2   Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
3   Department of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
2   Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
1   Department of Medicine - Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
› Author Affiliations


A broad spectrum of long-term sequelae may be present in venous thromboembolism (VTE) survivors, affecting their quality of life and functioning. To monitor recovery and improve the prognosis of patients with persistent functional limitations, the development of a new outcome measure that could better capture the consequences of VTE was an unmet need. Starting as a call to action, the Post-VTE Functional Status (PVFS) scale was developed to meet this need. The PVFS scale is an easy-to-use clinical tool to measure and quantify functional outcomes after VTE by focusing on key aspects of daily life. As the scale was considered useful in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients as well, the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) scale was introduced early in the pandemic after slight adaptation. The scale has been well incorporated into both the VTE and COVID-19 research communities, contributing to the shift of focus toward patient-relevant functional outcomes. Psychometric properties have been evaluated, mainly for the PCFS scale but recently also for the PVFS scale, including validation studies of translations, showing adequate validity and reliability. In addition to serving as outcome measure in studies, guidelines and position papers recommend using the PVFS and PCFS scale in clinical practice. As broad use of the PVFS and PCFS scale in clinical practice is valuable to capture what matters most to patients, widespread implementation is a crucial next step. In this review, we discuss the development of the PVFS scale and introduction in VTE and COVID-19 care, the incorporation of the scale in research, and its application in clinical practice.

Publication History

Article published online:
20 March 2023

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