Planta Med 2018; 84(03): 139-152
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-124087
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Ginsenoside Rh1: A Systematic Review of Its Pharmacological Properties

Dao Ngoc Hien Tam*
1   Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Duy Hieu Truong*
2   Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam
Thi Thanh Hoa Nguyen
3   Huy Cuong Pharmaceutical Company, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Le Nhat Quynh
4   Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue, Vietnam
Linh Tran
2   Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam
Hong Duong Nguyen
5   Online Research Club (, Nagasaki, Japan
Bahaa eldin Shamandy
6   Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt
Thi Minh Huong Le
7   Tien Giang General Hospital, Tien Giang, Vietnam
Dang Khoa Tran
8   Vo Truong Toan University, Hau Giang, Vietnam
Dina Sayed
9   Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
Van Vinh Vu
10   School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea
Shusaku Mizukami
11   Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
Kenji Hirayama
11   Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
Nguyen Tien Huy
12   Evidence Based Medicine Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
13   Department of Clinical Product Development, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Leading Graduate School Program, and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 05 June 2017
revised 15 November 2017

accepted 24 November 2017

Publication Date:
12 January 2018 (online)


Ginsenoside Rh1 is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. The objective of this study was to review the pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 in a systematic manner. We performed searches on eight electronic databases including MEDLINE (Pubmed), Scopus, Google Scholar, POPLINE, Global Health Library, Virtual Health Library, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report to select the original research publications reporting the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 from in vitro and in vivo studies regardless of publication language and study design. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included a total of 57 studies for our systemic review. Ginsenoside Rh1 exhibited the potent characteristics of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and positive effects on the nervous system. The cytotoxic effects of ginsenoside Rh1 were dependent on different types of cell lines. Other pharmacological effects including estrogenic, enzymatic, anti-microorganism activities, and cardiovascular effects have been mentioned, but the results were considerably diverged. A higher quality of evidence on clinical trial studies is highly recommended to confirm the consistent efficacy of ginsenoside Rh1.

* Dao Ngoc Hien Tam and Duy Hieu Truong contributed equally to this work.

Supporting Information

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