Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2018; 126(01): 7-13
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-106442
Review
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Genetic Polymorphisms of Antioxidant and Antiglycation Enzymes and Diabetic Complications. How Much Can we Learn from the Genes?

Dimitrios Oikonomou
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Jan Benedikt Groener
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Ruan Cheko
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Zoltan Kender
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Lars Kihm
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Thomas Fleming
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Stefan Kopf
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Peter P Nawroth
1   Department Medicine I and Clinical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, Heidelberg, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 06 March 2017
revised 06 March 2017

accepted 17 March 2017

Publication Date:
25 April 2017 (online)

Abstract

There is growing evidence that reactive metabolites, such as reactive oxygen species and dicarbonyls contribute to diabetic complications. Formation, accumulation, and detoxification of these metabolites are controlled by several enzymes, some of which have genetically determined levels of expression or function. This review not only gives an overview of the different SNPs studied in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2, but in addition attempts to bridge the gap between a genetic study and clinical use. Therefore, not only the results of the studies are reviewed, but also their use in identification of subgroups where an increased or decreased risk for a diabetic complication is described, as well as their use in developing novel therapeutic options based on understanding the contribution of an enzyme to a given complication.