J Pediatr Infect Dis 2023; 18(01): 038-045
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1759801
Original Article

Association of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS-1) Gene Variants in Children with COVID-19

Metin Uysalol
1   Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Türkiye
2   Department of Hematology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Science, Istanbul, Türkiye
Yasemin Oyacı
3   Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Türkiye
Raif Yıldız
1   Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Türkiye
Ezgi Uysalol
4   Department of Pediatric Hematology- Oncology, Basaksehir Cam and Sakura City Hospital, Istanbul, Türkiye
Sacide Pehlivan
3   Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Türkiye
› Author Affiliations


Objective The suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) gene is an essential physiological regulator of cytokine signaling. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important component of the immunological response. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of SOCS-1 (-1478 CA > Del) and TNF-α (-308) polymorphisms on disease susceptibility and prognosis in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods One-hundred fifty COVID-19 patients in the COVID-19 emergency department between September 2020 and April 2021 and 80 healthy volunteers (control group) without any additional disease were included. Baseline gene polymorphisms were compared between the patient and healthy control groups. Afterward, the gene polymorphism distribution was examined by forming two separate clinical patients' subgroups.

Results While CA/CA and CA/Del gene variants of SOCS-1 were higher in the patient group, Del/Del genotype was more common in the control group (p < 0.05). The GG genotype of the TNF-α was significantly more common in the severe subgroup (p = 0.044). The GA genotype of TNF-α was associated with the risk of hospitalization (2.83-fold), while the GG genotype was found to be protective in terms of hospitalization (2.95-fold).

Conclusions This study will be a guide in terms of the presence of high cytokine release genotypes and COVID-19-related cytokine release syndromes.


This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine, approval date and number: 29/05/2020–86529) and informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Patient Consent for Publication

An informed consent was obtained as written forms from all of our patients to publish.

Availability of Data and Materials

The authors declare that data supporting the findings of this study are available within the referenced articles.

Competing Interests

The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.

Authors' Contributions

M.U. and S.P. contributed to conceptualization, methodology, and software. I.S. was involved in data curation, writing-original draft preparation. R.Y., Y.O., and E.U. helped in visualization and investigation. S.P. contributed to software, validation, writing-reviewing and editing.

Publication History

Received: 08 July 2022

Accepted: 10 November 2022

Article published online:
26 December 2022

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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