CC BY 4.0 · European Journal of General Dentistry 2022; 11(03): 141-148
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1759752
Review Article

Polymorphic Variants across Population of the Growth Hormone Receptor with Mandible Prognathism: A Systematic Review

Seto A. Sadputranto
1   Doctor Program of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Indonesia
Ani M. Maskoen
2   Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Indonesia
3   Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Indonesia
Endang Sjamsudin
4   Departement of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Indonesia
› Author Affiliations


Genetic influences are critical for determining mandibular protrusion in class IIImalocclusion cases, and growth hormone receptors (GHRs) are thought to have an essential impact on craniofacial bone growth. This review aimed to assess the association between GHR gene polymorphism variants and mandibular morphology. Studies were extensively searched using PubMed and Google Scholar until December 2020. The study design according to PECOS was: P, class III malocclusion; E, GHR polymorphism; no polymorphism in C, GHR; O, linear dimensional changes in maxillary and mandibular measurements; and S, cross-sectional and case-control studies. Selected studies were of acceptable methodological quality on a 10-point scale. A preliminary search identified 107 studies; after excluding duplicate abstracts, 63 studies were screened. Nine studies were subsequently included in the systematic review. Conclusion Polymorphic variants at rs6180, rs6182, and rs6184 in the GHR gene were associated with condylion-gonion measures in Asians and Turks but not in Colombians and Egyptians.

Publication History

Article published online:
04 January 2023

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