CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Asian J Neurosurg 2022; 17(04): 588-594
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1757429
Original Article

Radiological and Morphometric Study of the Emissary Foramens and Canal in the Posterior Cranial Fossa of the Human Skull with Its Neurosurgical Significance

1   Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2   Genomics and Personalized Medicine Unit, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
,
Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda Honnegowda
3   Department of Anatomy, Siddaganga Medical College and Research Institute, Tumakuru, Karnataka, India
,
Amit Nautiyal
4   Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, AMRI Hospitals, Dhakuria, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
,
Mitra Deepanjan
4   Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, AMRI Hospitals, Dhakuria, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
› Author Affiliations
Sources of Funding The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Small Groups Project (grant number: RGP. 1/66/43).

Abstract

Objective The posterior condylar canals (PCCs), posterior condylar veins (PCVs), occipital foramen (OF), and occipital emissary vein (OEV) are potential anatomical landmarks for surgical approaches through the lateral foramen magnum. We performed the study to make morphometric and radiological analyses of the various emissary foramens and vein in the posterior cranial fossa.

Methods Morphometric study were performed on 95 dry occipital bones and radiological analyses on computed tomography (CT) angiography images of 150 patients. The number of OFs on both sides was recorded and PCC length and mean diameters of the internal and external orifices of PCC were measured for bony specimens. Prevalence of PCV and PCV size was investigated using CT angiography.

Results Mean PCC length was higher in the left side (9.85 ± 2.5). Mean diameter of the internal orifice and the external orifice diameter were almost the same. The majority of PCCs (75–79.33%) had 2 to 5 mm diameter; only 4 to 9.2% were small in size (< 2 mm). In CT angiography, PCV was not identified in 23 (15.33%) patients. PCVs were located bilaterally in 105 (70%) and unilaterally in 22 (20.5%) patients. Only 11.3% of PCVs were large in size (> 5 mm), 80% of PCVs were medium sized (2–5 mm), and 8.6% were small sized (< 2 mm).

Conclusion Normal values of OF, PCC, PCV, and OEV could serve as a future reference for the understanding of the physiology of craniocervical venous drainage, which is necessary to avoid surgical complications and can also serve as a guide to surgical interventions for pathologies of the posterior cranial fossa, such as tumors and injuries.

Ethical Approval and Informed Consent

The study is approved by Institutional Ethics committee (Number-EC/2018/10), Kannur Hospital, Anjarakandy, Kerala, India. Consent has been taken by study participants and the study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki declaration.


Authors' Contributions

M.A.A. and T.M.H.G. were involved in protocol/project development. A.N., D.M., and T.M.H.G. collected the data. M.A.A. and T.M.H.G. analyzed the data and contributed to manuscript writing/editing. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.




Publication History

Article published online:
28 October 2022

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