CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Asian J Neurosurg 2022; 17(04): 541-546
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1757220
Review Article

Endoscopic Evacuation of Massive Intraventricular Hemorrhages Reduces Shunt Dependency: A Meta-Analysis

Alessandro Fiorindi
1   Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Italy
,
Giorgio Saraceno
1   Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Italy
,
Luca Zanin
1   Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Italy
,
Lodovico Terzi di Bergamo
2   Institute of Oncology Research, Bellinzona, Switzerland
,
Alberto Feletti
3   Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Institute of Neurosurgery, University of Verona, AOUI Verona, Polo Chirurgico “P. Confortini,” Italy
,
Francesco Doglietto
4   Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
,
Marco Maria Fontanella
1   Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is characterized by severe prognosis. The amount of intraventricular blood is the most important, disease-specific, prognostic factor, as acute complications are strictly dependent on clot formation. Although external ventricular drain (EVD) placement is the standard treatment, in the past 15 years neuroendoscopic (NE) evacuation of IVH has been advocated, but available comparative data are limited. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Included articles compare the treatment of primary and secondary IVH with NE and EVD. The meta-analysis was performed in terms of shunt dependency. Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity in the studies. No heterogeneity was considered for p greater than 0.05 and I2 less than 20%. A random-effect model was used, with restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the heterogeneity variance. After screening 744 articles, 5 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 303 patients presenting with primary or pure (50 patients) and secondary (253 patients) IVH, undergoing either NE (151) or EVD (152), were included in the metanalysis. The risk of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was higher in the EVD group (relative risk: 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.28–2.92, p = 0.0094). The risk of VP shunt was higher in the EVD group, but the overall outcome remains poor for patients with IVH, with a moderate-to-high disability. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate more deeper both advantages and effects on the outcome of NE over EVD.



Publication History

Article published online:
05 December 2022

© 2022. Asian Congress of Neurological Surgeons. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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