Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2022; 26(04): 491-500
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1754341
Review Article

Imaging of Metabolic Bone Diseases: The Spine View, Part II

Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez
1   Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
2   Department of Radiology, IMSKE, Valencia, Spain
Amanda Isaac
3   School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Danoob Dalili
4   Academic Surgical Unit, South West London Elective Orthopaedic Centre (SWLEOC), Epsom, London, United Kingdom
5   Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Epsom and St. Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom
Anastasia Fotiadou
6   Consultant Radiologist, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, United Kingdom
Eleni P. Kariki
7   Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
8   Division of Informatics, Imaging & Data Sciences, School of Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Jan S. Kirschke
9   Interventional und Diagnostic Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
Christian R Krestan
10   Department of Radiology, Favoriten Hospital, Vienna, Austria
Carmelo Messina
11   IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy
Edwin H.G. Oei
12   Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Catherine M. Phan
13   Service de Radiologie Ostéo-Articulaire, APHP, Nord-Université de Paris, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France
Mahesh Prakash
14   Department of Radiodiagnosis & Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
Nuran Sabir
15   Department of Radiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
Alberto Tagliafico
16   DISSAL, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
17   Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
Francisco Aparisi
18   Department of Radiology, Hospital Vithas Nueve de Octubre, Valencia, Spain
Thomas Baum
19   Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
Thomas M. Link
20   Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California
Giuseppe Guglielmi
21   Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Alberto Bazzocchi
22   Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
› Author Affiliations


Metabolic bone diseases comprise a wide spectrum. Osteoporosis, the most frequent, characteristically involves the spine, with a high impact on health care systems and on the morbidity of patients due to the occurrence of vertebral fractures (VFs).

Part II of this review completes an overview of state-of-the-art techniques on the imaging of metabolic bone diseases of the spine, focusing on specific populations and future perspectives. We address the relevance of diagnosis and current status on VF assessment and quantification. We also analyze the diagnostic techniques in the pediatric population and then review the assessment of body composition around the spine and its potential application. We conclude with a discussion of the future of osteoporosis screening, through opportunistic diagnosis and the application of artificial intelligence.

Publication History

Article published online:
14 September 2022

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