CC BY 4.0 · Pharmaceutical Fronts 2022; 04(02): e61-e70
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1749373
Original Article

Discovery of Indole-Containing Benzamide Derivatives as HDAC1 Inhibitors with In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activities

Xiu Gu
1   School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Xin-Yan Peng
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Hao Zhang
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
3   School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Bo Han
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Min-Ru Jiao
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Qiu-Shi Chen
1   School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
,
Qing-Wei Zhang
2   Novel Technology Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was financially supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2018ZX09711002-002-009), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81703358), and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No. 17431903900, 18QB1404200, and 21S11908000).


Abstract

Targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs) has become an important focus in cancer inhibition. The pharmacophore of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) reported so far is composed of three parts: a zinc-binding group (ZBG), a hydrophobic cavity-binding linker, and a surface-recognition cap interacting with HDAC surface located at the rim of active site cavity. This study aims to discover novel HDAC1 inhibitors with potent antitumor activities through modifying the cap and ZBG based on the structures of two marketed oral HDACis: chidamide and entinostat (MS-275). In this work, a series of benzamide derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antitumor activity. The structures of novel compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), and all target compounds were tested in both HDAC1 enzymatic inhibitory activity and cellular antiproliferative activity. Our data showed that the potent compound 3j exhibited good HDAC1 enzyme inhibitory activity and high antitumor cell proliferation activity against a selected set of cancer cells (PC-3, HCT-116, HUT-78, Jurkat E6–1, A549, Colo205, and MCF-7 cells) with no observed effects on human normal cells. In particular, compound 3j inhibited HDAC1 over the other tested HDAC isoforms (HDAC2, HDAC6, and HDAC8). Encouraged by this, the safety characteristics, molecular docking, preliminary pharmacokinetic characteristics, and antitumor effect in vivo of compound 3j were further investigated. Our data showed that compound 3j demonstrated acceptable safety profiles and favorable oral pharmacokinetic properties. Moreover, compound 3j could bind well with HDAC1 and showed significant antitumor activity in a PC-3 tumor xenograft model in vivo, though not as potent as positive control entinostat (MS-275). In summary, 3j might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of human cancers.

Ethics Statement

The present study was approved by the animal ethics committee and abides by the relevant agreements of China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.




Publication History

Received: 21 December 2021

Accepted: 21 April 2022

Article published online:
30 June 2022

© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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