Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2022; 35(04): 255-262
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1748878
Original Research

Simulated Kick Injury to the Mandible in Horses: Study of Fracture Configurations and Physical Parameters of the Impact

Levin Gfrerer
1   Equine Department, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
,
2   Mechanical Systems Engineering Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
,
Anton E. Fürst
1   Equine Department, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
,
Gabor Piskoty
2   Mechanical Systems Engineering Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
,
Bernhard Weisse
2   Mechanical Systems Engineering Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
,
Stéphane Montavon
3   Veterinary Department of the Swiss Armed Forces, Bern, Switzerland
,
1   Equine Department, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Objective The goal of this study was to generate mandibular fractures in three regions of the diastema using a metal impactor to simulate a kick from a horse and to determine the mean deceleration in the initial phase of the impact event, the maximum contact force, the impact energy necessary to create a fracture and the duration of the impact.

Study Design Thirty heads of horses aged between 5 and 20 years and euthanatized for various reasons were used. The heads were attached to a steel bar at the occiput at an axial angle of 45 degrees so that the body of the mandible was positioned horizontally and directly under the trajectory of the impactor. A 2 kg solid impactor was dropped with velocities of 6 to 14 m/s to simulate a kick from a horse. The impact was recorded using a high-speed video camera with a frame rate of 30,000 frames per second. Radiographs of the heads were obtained before and after the simulated kick.

Results Mandibular fractures with configurations similar to those seen in clinical practice were generated at all three locations. The mean deceleration increased with impact velocity and with more cranially located impact positions. Absorbed energy increased with increasing impact velocity when no fracture was generated.

Conclusion The susceptibility to experimental fracture of the diastema increased from rostral to caudal locations, which is most probably caused by decreasing mandibular bone strength and an increase in the curvature at the lateroventral aspect of the mandible in that region. Physical parameters depended on fracture occurrence and type.

Authors' Contributions

All authors contributed to the following: conception of study, study design, acquisition of data, data analysis & interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, and approval of the submitted manuscript. All authors are publicly accountable for relevant content.




Publication History

Received: 17 October 2021

Accepted: 23 March 2022

Article published online:
15 July 2022

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