CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Academic Ophthalmology 2022; 14(02): e153-e165
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1744272
Research Article

Exploring Potential Schedule-Related and Gender Biases in Ophthalmology Residency Interview Scores

Chih-Chiun J. Chang
1   Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California
,
Omar Moussa
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
,
Royce W. S. Chen
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
,
Lora R. Dagi Glass
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
,
George A. Cioffi
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
,
Jeffrey M. Liebmann
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
,
1   Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California
2   Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
3   Ophthalmology Section, Surgical Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California
› Author Affiliations
Funding/Support This research was supported, in part, by the UCSF Vision Core shared resource of the NIH/NEI P30 EY002162 and unrestricted departmental grants from Research to Prevent Blindness to the Department of Ophthalmology at Columbia University and UCSF.

Abstract

Purpose Prior studies have revealed grading discrepancies in evaluation of personal statements and letters of recommendation based on candidate's race and gender. Fatigue and the end-of-day phenomenon can negatively impact task performance but have not been studied in the residency selection process. Our primary objective is to determine whether factors related to interview time and day as well as candidate's and interviewer's gender have a significant effect on residency interview scores.

Methods Seven years of ophthalmology residency candidate evaluation scores from 2013 to 2019 were collected at a single academic institution, standardized by interviewer into relative percentiles (0–100 point grading scale), and grouped into the following categories for comparisons: different interview days (Day 1 vs. Day 2), morning versus afternoon (AM vs. PM), interview session (Day 1 AM/PM vs. Day 2 AM/PM), before and after breaks (morning break, lunch break, and afternoon break), residency candidate's gender, and interviewer's gender.

Results Candidates in the morning sessions were found to have higher scores than afternoon sessions (52.75 vs. 49.28, p < 0.001). Interview scores in the early morning, late morning, and early afternoon were higher than late afternoon scores (54.47, 53.01, 52.15 vs. 46.74, p < 0.001). Across all interview years, there were no differences in scores received before and after morning breaks (51.71 vs. 52.83, p = 0.49), lunch breaks (53.01 vs. 52.15, p = 0.58), and afternoon breaks (50.35 vs. 48.30, p = 0.21). No differences were found in scores received by female versus male candidates (51.55 vs. 50.49, p = 0.21) or scores given by female versus male interviewers (51.31 vs. 50.84, p = 0.58).

Conclusion Afternoon residency candidate interview scores, especially late afternoon, were significantly lower than morning scores, suggesting the need to further study the effects of interviewer's fatigue in the residency interview process. The interview day, presence of break times, candidate's gender, and interviewer's gender had no significant effects on interview score.

Ethical Approval

The project was approved by the Columbia University Irving Medical Center Institutional Review Board (IRB #AAAT2246) on September 8, 2020, and was compliant with protection of individually identifiable information.


Disclaimers

None.


Meeting Presentation

Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology (AUPO) Annual Meeting, February 4–6, 2021, virtual.




Publication History

Received: 21 June 2021

Accepted: 10 November 2021

Article published online:
03 August 2022

© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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