The Journal of Hip Surgery 2022; 06(02): 058-062
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1744133
Original Article

Nicotine Dependence and Incident Hip Replacement Surgery in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, TRINET-X, 2021

1   Department of Dental Practice and Rural Health, Health Sciences Addition, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
Melissa Suann Gaydos
2   Department of Dental Hygiene, Health Sciences Center North, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
Jill Cochran
3   Division of Clinical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, Lewisburg, West Virginia
Susan Morgan
4   Department of Periodontics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
› Author Affiliations
Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number 5U54GM104942-04. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


The purpose of this research is to examine the association between nicotine dependence (yes, no) and hip replacement (yes, no) among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data were obtained through the TRINET-X data depository of 18 years or older patients with T2DM and nicotine dependence history. Then, the incidence of hip replacement surgery was determined. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to determine the risk of hip replacement surgery. After PSM, the risk ratio of hip replacement surgery among people with T2DM was 1.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.57; p < 0.0001) for those who had nicotine dependence versus those who did not. Nicotine dependence among people with T2DM was identified as a risk factor for future hip replacement need. Patients who have nicotine dependence should be cautioned about this potential risk.


Authors have followed the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in which they have substantial contributions to (1) conception and design, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are held by TRINET-X,[30]

Ethical Statement

The West Virginia University provided the acknowledgment of this study as meeting the characteristics of a non-human subject research study.

Publication History

Received: 09 June 2021

Accepted: 04 January 2022

Article published online:
09 March 2022

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