CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Neurosci Rural Pract 2022; 13(02): 254-260
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1743215
Original Article

Crude Extracts of Bacopa Monnieri Induces Dendrite Formation in Rodent Neural Stem Cell Cultures—A Possible Use in Neuronal Injury

1   Department of Anatomy, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
,
Rohan Sinha
2   Department of Neurosurgery, JP Hospital Noida, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
,
Mingma Sherpa
3   Department of Pathology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
,
Amlan Gupta
3   Department of Pathology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Background Repair of nervous tissue injury impairs positive functional outcome. Major challenges involved are formation of new neuronal cells at the site of injury, growth and development of existing or stem cell-derived neuronal cells, and proper anatomical alignment of the cells required for the functional organization of the nervous system. Stem cells and various agents have been tried to overcome the above challenges yielding only limited positive results. Bacopa has been in frequent usage for cognitive impairment in Ayurvedic medicine. The assumption that Bacopa monnieri (BM) extracts may lead to certain specific changes at the cellular structural level benefitting the central nervous system repair, prompted us for the present study.

Objective This is an in vitro study evaluating the effect of BM extracts (bacopasides and analogues) on the neuronal stem cells (NSC) culture in various concentrations. The study investigates the possibility of BM as an agent for the regeneration and differentiation of nervous tissue injury. This may have clinical and therapeutic implications.

Materials and Methods NSC were harvested from the newborn albino rats, Rattus norvegicus, and the BM extracts were obtained from product “brahmi” manufactured by Himalaya Drug Company. Aqueous suspension of 2 μL of alcoholic extract of BM was locally added to the culture plates of NSC in concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 µg/mL after development of NSC in the media. The control NSC (without BM) and BM-rich NSC were simultaneously observed at regular unit intervals after inoculation. The morphological change in the NSC were observed and recorded.

Result NSC could be successfully cultured from the newborn rat's brain harvested at 3 and 6 hours of birth. NSCs derived at 3 hours of birth were more primitive (predominantly neurospheres) than derived those at 6 hours of birth. BM had significant positive effect on the neurospheres, that is, dendritic formation was seen in the NSC predominating when 2 μL of suspensions containing 5 and 10 µg/mL concentration of the extracts were used but showed relatively lesser effect at concentration of 20 µg/mL. The positive effect was biologically significant.

Conclusion NSC can be cultured from brain of the newborn rodent. BM and its extracts act positively on NSC in terms of dendritic formation when used in proper appropriate concentration. The study opens up a new area of research and explores newer avenues in nervous tissue injury repair. It may have future clinical implication in the treatment of injury of central and peripheral nervous tissue. However, the hypothesis needs to be validated by adequate number of experimental runs as well as in vivo studies to know the reproducibility of the findings in other centers.

Authors' Contributions

R.S., M.S., and A.G. designed this study and edited the figures. R.K.S., R.S., M.S., and A.G. conducted the study and performed the analysis.


Note

The present study is a part of ongoing research on nervous tissue injury repair at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, India. The ongoing research has been approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health, and Government of India. The Bacopa Monnieri extract has been obtained from the traditional medicine sold by generic name “brahmi” manufactured by Himalayan Drug Company. No financial support has been taken from the pharmaceutical company for the study; however, formal clearance for the product use has been obtained from the company. The study has been approved by the institute's ethical committee and animal ethics committee.




Publication History

Article published online:
08 March 2022

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