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Serum S100B and NSE Levels Correlate With Infarct Size and Bladder-Bowel Involvement Among Acute Ischemic Stroke PatientsFunding None.
Objectives Stroke is a major global health concern. Due to limited availability of neuroimaging particularly in rural and regional areas in India as well as its limitation, the interest in use of biochemical markers for stroke diagnosis, severity, and prognosis is increasing. Only a handful of studies on stroke biomarkers have been conducted in India. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the correlation of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels with stroke severity according to infarct size in acute ischemic stroke patients.
Material and Methods Sixty stroke patients were recruited for the study and were evaluated. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain was performed for all patients within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Infarct volume was measured by evaluating dimensions in three planes on CT head. Serum NSE and S100B levels were measured by commercially available immunoassay kits. Continuous data was represented as mean ± standard deviation. Categorical data was expressed in terms of percentages and proportions. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess correlation between NSE and S100B and infarct size. Infarct size was classified arbitrarily into three groups according to infarct volume (low, moderate, and large) and analysis of variance was applied for comparing mean S100B and NSE levels in the three groups. To assess the independent predictors of infarct size among stroke cases, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Association between serum S100B or NSE levels and clinical features was done by the Mann–Whitney U test.
Results Correlation between serum S100B protein levels and NSE with larger infarct volume was highly significant (r(S100B) = 0.611, p (S100B) < 0.0001; r(NSE) = 0.258, p(NSE) = 0.047). Using multivariate regression analysis, bladder and bowel involvement, prior stroke history, and dyslipidemia among stroke patients correlated with a larger infarct size. Mann–Whitney U test showed both NSE and S100B levels were significantly associated with bladder bowel involvement among stroke cases.
Conclusion There was a positive correlation between serum S100B and NSE levels with infarct size. In addition, bladder-bowel involvement among stroke patients was associated with increased S100B levels. Therefore, levels of protein S100B and NSE may serve as indicator of infarct size and may be predictors of severe clinical presentations of acute ischemic stroke.
The research protocol titled: “Serum S100B and Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) levels as indicators of Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Stroke” was discussed by the IEC in its meeting and the protocol was approved for conduct under the jurisdiction of LHMC and Associated hospitals, New Delhi 110001.
P.K. contributed in study design, conduct of the study, data acquisition and analysis, literature review, and preparation of manuscript draft. A.S. contributed in the conduct of study, data analysis, literature review, preparation of manuscript draft, manuscript editing, review, and proofing. R.S.S. performed study design, conduct of study, data acquisition and analysis, preparation of manuscript draft, and manuscript editing. R.S. performed study design, conduct of the study, data acquisition, manuscript editing, review, and proofing. K.V. conducted data analysis, preparation of manuscript draft, manuscript editing, review, and proofing. D.G. performed literature review, preparation of manuscript draft, manuscript editing, review, and proofing. R.K.D. performed study design, conduct of study, literature review, preparation of manuscript, manuscript editing, review, and proofing.
Article published online:
09 March 2022
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