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Assessment of Oral Health and Healthy Habits in Adult Patients with Congenital Hemophilia
Objectives The objective of our study was to assess the current knowledge, the oral health status, and the pro-health needs of patients with hemophilia.
Materials and Methods The study included 77 patients with known hemophilia. The study included the assessment of dental indicators related to caries incidence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT] and decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth or surfaces [DMFS]), caries treatment (treatment index), oral hygiene status (Approximal Plaque Index [API] and simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S]), and periodontal status (bleeding on probing [BoP]). A questionnaire addressed symptoms of hemorrhagic diathesis and health-promoting habits. The influence of routine management (“on-demand” vs. prophylactic therapy), type of hemophilia (A, B), and severity of clotting factor deficiency (mild, moderate, or severe) on oral health was assessed.
Statistical Analysis The tests used in the study were Shapiro–Wilk, Mann–Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, and Dunn's tests. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results Patients with hemophilia showed a higher prevalence of caries compared with patients without hemorrhagic diathesis (DMFT 14 and 9, and DMFS 30 and 15, respectively), and they also presented a higher bleeding index value during probing and worse effectiveness of hygienic interdental procedures. The type of therapy and secondary prophylaxis used and the type and severity of hemophilia did not affect the oral health status.
Conclusions Patients with hemophilia have an increased risk of developing dental caries. Undertaking educational activities related to the prevention of oral diseases is necessary to improve oral health.
Article published online:
02 May 2022
© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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