CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ann Natl Acad Med Sci 2022; 58(02): 087-091
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1743134
Original Article

A Study on the Role of Urinary Congophilia in Early Detection of Preeclampsia

1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Madhu Jain
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Debabrata Dash
2   Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Surendra P. Mishra
2   Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Milad Mohammadzadehasl
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Introduction Preeclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal morbidity. Preeclapmtic women secrete misfolded proteins in the urine. Buhimschi et al had developed a new test for diagnosis of preeclampsia. This test is based on staining of misfolded protein with Congo red dye. Misfolded proteins are derived from syncytiotrophoblast microparticles (STBMs). These STBM are membrane bound vesicles and contain misfolded proteins. In preeclampsia, glomeruli of kidneys are disrupted and these damaged protein reach the urine.

Aim and Objective This study aimed to investigate the role of urinary congophilia in early prediction of preeclampsia.

Materials and Methods This test was done in 250 pregnant women attending the Gynaecological Outpatient Department. Urine sample of early morning was taken and test was done in the Department of Biochemistry. The included pregnant women were of gestational age between 14 and 18 weeks. The staining of urine with Congo red dye was done and washed with methanol. The retention of dye was interpreted with naked eye. The more retention of dye, the more chances of developing preeclampsia later. The patients were followed-up till delivery. The patents who developed preeclampsia later part of pregnancy were recorded. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and past history and body mass index were also recorded.

Results Out of 250 patients, 30 developed preeclampsia later. A total of 34 patients were having positive urinary congophilia and only 20 patients developed preeclampsia later. MAP more than 90 mm Hg is abnormal but 66.7% of patients who developed preeclampsia had MAP >90 mm Hg. In 16.7% of patients, who developed preeclampsia later, had positive past history of hypertension. In 66.7% of patients, who were positive for urinary congophilia, later developed preeclampsia.

Conclusion Preeclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. So, early detection can prevent complications and timely management. Urinary congophilia is one of such test which can help in early prediction of preeclampsia. If it is combined with past maternal history and MAP, it gives more good results. The detection rate is much higher if signs and symptoms of preeclampsia are noticed timely.

Publication History

Article published online:
09 March 2022

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