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Protective Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Plant on Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats
Objectives Ulcerative colitis is a global disease with increasing incidence and worldwide prevalence. So this study was undertaken to observe antiulcerative colitis activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Nelumbo nucifera plant on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.
Materials and Methods The effect of ethanolic extract of N. nucifera seed (EENNS) was studied on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in albino Wistar rats for 11 days. Disease pathogenesis was assessed by evaluation of disease activity index (DAI) including the following parameters: change in body weight, stool constituency, rectal bleeding in animals. Estimation of myeloperoxide (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and antioxidant parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase level was performed in colon homogenate of animals. TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor- α) level was measured in colon homogenate using rat TNF-α ELISA kit.
Statistical Analysis Significant differences (mean ± standard error of the mean) were detected using one-way analysis of variance followed by post-test using Graphpad prism 7.0 for multiple comparisons.
Results EENNS (400 mg/kg) significantly improved the disease progression, body weight, and colon length of the animals as compared with the disease control group. Animal treated with EENNS (400 mg/kg) showed significantly improved colon mucosal damage index (1.66 ± 0.21) and DAI (11.66 ± 4.01) as compared with the disease control group. A higher level of SOD and catalase and a lower level of MDA were observed in animals treated with EENNS (400 mg/kg) as compared with the disease control group. Animals treated with EENNS (400 mg/kg) significantly decreased in NO and MPO levels as compared with the disease control group. A lower level of TNF-α (561.94 ± 14.84) was observed in EENNS (400 mg/kg)-treated animals as compared with the disease control group (736.92 ± 15.3). These observations were comparable to those of the standard control group. Histopathological data showed that EENNS (400 mg/kg) has shown reversal of tissue inflammation as compared with the disease group and evidence of less cell infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes with normal structures of goblet cell and crypts as compared with the disease group.
Conclusion EENS (400 mg/kg) can decrease the severity of the UC produced by DSS. EENNS showed a protective effect against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis which may be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
Article published online:
07 March 2022
© 2022. National Academy of Medical Sciences (India). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
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