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Prevalence and Determinants of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) among Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, IndiaSource of Funding None.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among women predisposes them to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the causative agent for cervical cancer. The study retrospectively analyzed the data of 291 women living with HIV AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) to assess the prevalence and determinants of the HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The study found a high prevalence of cervical HPV infection (34.4%), CIN I (6.2%), and CIN II+ (8.6%). Participants with HPV DNA positivity are significantly more likely to be aged younger than 35 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.69), housewives (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.31–3.99), married at <20 years of age (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.13–3.58), and have been pregnant more than two times (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08–2.87). Participants with CIN II+ are significantly more likely to be not married (OR = 3.363, 95% CI = 1.302–8.686). Considering the high prevalence of HPV and CIN observed among HIV women, it is worthwhile to integrate cervical cancer awareness programs and screening with routine follow-up of HIV patients at antiretroviral therapy clinic. This susceptible population needs attention to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in the country.
S.A.P. had the initial idea and was responsible for the conduct of the study, and participated in its conception and design, monitoring, supervision, acquisition, and interpretation of the data and the provision of clinical services in the study. V.P. was responsible for monitoring, supervision, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. G.A.M. was responsible for the study design, conduct, monitoring and supervision of the study, acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data. K.V.A. participated in the conduct and monitoring of the study, acquisition, and interpretation of data. All authors were involved in drafting the manuscript and have read and approved the text as submitted to the journal.
S.A.P., as corresponding author, confirms that she had access to all data and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.
Article published online:
17 February 2022
© 2022. Indian Society of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
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