Planta Med 2017; 83(06): 509-518
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-117774
Biological and Pharmacological Activity
Original Papers
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Antiviral Activity of Crude Hydroethanolic Extract from Schinus terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex Virus Type 1

Samara Requena Nocchi
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
,
Mychelle Vianna Pereira Companhoni
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
,
João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
3  Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
,
Benedito Prado Dias Filho
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
2  Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
,
Celso Vataru Nakamura
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
2  Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
,
Carlos Alexandre Carollo
4  Laboratório de Produtos Naturais e Espectrometria de Massas (LaPNEM), Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
,
Denise Brentan Silva
4  Laboratório de Produtos Naturais e Espectrometria de Massas (LaPNEM), Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
,
Tânia Ueda-Nakamura
1  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
2  Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 29 April 2016
revised 02 September 2016

accepted 15 September 2016

Publication Date:
05 October 2016 (online)

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro and in vivo as well as its genotoxicity in bone marrow in mammals and established the chemical composition of the crude hydroethanolic extract based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS. The crude hydroethanolic extract inhibited all of the tested Herpes simplex virus type 1 strains in vitro and was effective in the attachment and penetration stages, and showed virucidal activity, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The micronucleus test showed that the crude hydroethanolic extract had no genotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. The crude hydroethanolic extract afforded protection against lesions that were caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo. Liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS identified 25 substances, which are condensed tannins mainly produced by a B-type linkage and prodelphinidin and procyanidin units.

Supporting Information

Chromatographic profiles and total ion chromatograms of the CHE of S. terebinthifolia, as well as the EC50 values of the CHE for different strains are available in Supporting Information.