Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017; 125(06): 353-359
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-117773
Article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin E Co-Supplementation on Indices of Insulin Resistance and Hormonal Parameters in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi
1  Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Mansooreh Samimi
1  Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Fatemeh Foroozanfard
1  Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Mehri Jamilian
2  Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
,
Hossein Akbari
3  Department of Biostatistics, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Elham Rahmani
4  Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
,
Shahnaz Ahmadi
5  Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
,
Mohsen Taghizadeh
6  Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh
7  Barij Medicinal Plants Research Center, Kashan, I.R. Iran
,
Zatollah Asemi
6  Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 31 May 2016
revised 09 September 2016

accepted 21 September 2016

Publication Date:
13 April 2017 (online)

Abstract

Objective

This study was conducted to determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on indices of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done on 68 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria aged 18–40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups to receive either 1 000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n=34) or placebo (n=34) for 12 weeks. Hormonal parameters were quantified at the beginning of the study and after 12-week intervention.

Results

After 12 weeks of intervention, compared to the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in insulin (−1.0±3.5 vs. +2.7±6.6 µIU/mL, P=0.004), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (−0.2±0.8 vs. +0.6±1.5, P=0.005), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (−4.3±14.3 vs. +10.5±24.5, P=0.004) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.006±0.02 vs. −0.01±0.04, P=0.008). Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids plus vitamin E led to significant reductions in serum total testosterone (−0.5±0.7 vs. −0.1±0.5 ng/mL, P=0.008) and free testosterone (−1.2±2.1 vs. −0.2±1.7, P=0.04) compared to the placebo group. We did not observe any significant effect of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on fasting plasma glucose and other hormonal profiles.

Conclusions

Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation for 12 weeks in PCOS women significantly improved indices of insulin resistance, total and free testosterone.